The basis of this scheme lies in the existence and long tradition of credit rotation groups, where small groups of persons donate small amounts of money on a regular basis and allocate the resulting amount to a selected member each time. Instead of being distributed each month to a participant, the collected money is integrated with commercial banking through a pyramid of small trust groups and an umbrella group. The CMP consults with women's groups, provides financial and management training to umbrella groups of recipients, who in turn form trust groups. Each member of a trust group works to produce some product for sale, or similar income generating activity, rather than as a member of a co-operative, but the group as a whole contributes inputs of a communal interest. As each member contributes small amounts of money each period, the trust group forwards the collected money to an umbrella group. That money is then deposited in a nearby participating commercial bank. The bank, after signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the Ministry, has some money deposited in it from the CMP (using its IG budget) as capital. The groups are required to obtain loans through the regular bank channels and procedures (after encouragement, mobilization and training from CMP), and the bank uses the capital deposited by CMP to make loans to the umbrella group. When an umbrella group demonstrates its credit worthiness to the bank, then it can get access to normal capital from the same bank (ie: not from the original CMP deposit), thus opening a channel for sustainability, and freeing up the CMP capital for use by further target groups.
Many thanks to Victoria Abankwa, National Coordinator, and Adolphine Asimah, National Director, of the Ghana Strengthening Community Management Programme (SCMP), who made this system work, who adapted it to existing principles and practices, and who invited me to Ghana, January, 1996, to see it work.
............................................................................................................................. Phil Bartle
Footnote (1): To allow rapid downloading off the Internet, this document does not include its illustrations within it. To see the illustrations, click onto the link identifying each illustration. It will appear alone on your screen. Press your "BACK" button on your browser to return to this document. Also see Income Generation Illustrations for the complete set with no text.
Introduction to Income Generation:
We were faced with a challenge: develop a viable scheme for income generation and add it to the ongoing strengthening of low income community groups that CMP was already implementing. The scheme had to be within the following limits:
We were faced with several choices:
What we devised, is described in this document.
The Income Generation (IG) scheme of CMP is a viable method of poverty reduction in the monetary sector by income generation. CMP provides awareness raising, mobilization, financial advice, organizational and management training, encouragement, skills, and (indirectly) the initial capital for the IG activities selected by the participating groups. The loans are modest and within the capacities of the participants to repay when they obtain income from their activities. The regular deposit of money is based on traditional and well known practices of credit rotation groups. The groups are small enough, and the members are put into a context in which they will put social sanctions on defaulters, so that they remain sustainable.
Who Can Use this Method?
Although this scheme was developed for the Community Management Programme (CMP) within the Directorate of Community Development, Ministry of Gender and Community Development, Uganda, it can be adapted and adopted by any agency with similar aims.
Why Credit Instead of Grants?
A debate has continued up to now about the dilemma of offering credit versus grants to small groups of women for use as capital in generating income for themselves. The offering of credit is recommended, because it is expected to make the recipients more accountable and responsible with its use, because they will be required to pay back the loan.
Offering credit, however, requires administrative and management capacity that CMP, and the Ministry of Gender which is implementing CMP, simply do not have. While giving small grants to women's groups may be easier to administer by CMP, it is not advised, because it is not seen as a sustainable approach, and does not require the recipient groups to be as accountable for their use of the funds. There have been uncountable horror stories of various credit schemes, in many countries, where the moneys have been diverted, not used for their original objectives, and not paid back as promised, not to mention many other problems that have arisen in this sector, so the CMP National Steering Committee is understandably cautious about implementing this element of the CMP set of activities. CMP is eager to ensure that the budget is used to achieve its stated objectives, is committed to sustainability and community strengthening as a method of poverty reduction; it therefore promotes income generation in the manner described below.
A Sketch of the Scheme
This section describes the overall operation, beginning with the essential elements, then a few details about some of the key parts. They are all needed together. Together they constitute a working system; if any of the essential parts are missing or seriously modified, then the whole will be affected, and success not guaranteed.
The Essential Elements of the Scheme:
The essential elements include the following:
The Ministry is Not a Bank
CMP and the Ministry of Gender and Community Development should not be engaged in banking; it is not our business; it is the business of a bank. After the Ministry signs a Letter of Understanding with the participating bank, CMP deposits an amount into that participating bank, trains participants, then introduces them to the bank. CMP acts a broker, trainer, mobilizer and organizer (not as a banker and not as Father Christmas).
The Role of Commercial Banks:
Because CMP and the Ministry of Gender and Community Development which is implementing it do not have the mandate, the capacity, or the means to operate as a bank, the loaning of credit to these groups is done through participating local commercial banks.
A Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry and the Banks provides the legal instrument for channelling CMP funds to be used as capital for income generation. Instead of CMP putting its money (from its IG budget) directly into the hands of the target groups, it deposits it into the participating banks (eg the Agricultural Development Bank) operating near the target groups.
CMP offers training in management and finance to the participants. It then introduces the groups to the participating banks. Many or even most of the participants have never been near or inside any bank, and originally feel very distant from such sophisticated institutions. After training, which provides skills, encouragement, organization and confidence, the groups are then introduced to the banks, which require them to follow standard procedures of making deposits and obtaining loans.
The banks are willing to participate because the original capital that they loan to the groups is that which is deposited with them by CMP.
If the group is successful in generating income, repaying its loan, and obtaining credit worthiness, then the group is able to obtain credit from the non-CMP standard capital within the bank. The capital originally deposited by CMP, then, is freed up for use by other target groups. The process of expanding to new groups is thus made sustainable.
Banks usually do not want to give small loans to individuals or small groups of people who need a little capital. (They can earn more interest with much less risk by buying Governmental bonds). By setting up small trust groups that in turn form larger umbrella groups, and training them to carry out their own internal banking procedures (each participant having her own passbook, printed by CMP), the CMP scheme thus forms larger groups needing larger loans. The bank deals with the umbrella group, and makes a larger loan to it rather than to the smaller groups or individuals needing small loans.
The Sizes of the Loans:
The size of each loan coming from the bank is much greater than the size of each loan going to each participating individual. One purpose of the organizing into a pyramid of umbrella group and several trust groups, is to bulk break each loan.
The desires of the participants to obtain assistance in income generation are expressed in animation and mobilization meetings, where community groups identify their priority concerns. Consultations with groups in the target communities indicate a general desire for assistance in income generation. At first, requests will likely be highly unrealistic; some individuals may ask for millions of shillings (2) and have no skills or clear idea about business operations, loans, credit or investment.
Footnote (2): For ease of conversion, we assume here that one US dollar ($1.00) is roughly equivalent to one thousand Ugandan shillings (1,000/=). As of 1997 August, it was 1,085/= Uganda shillings.
Some assume that the money coming from CMP is the income generated, and they need to be told that such money can be used, but only as a "rented" resource so that they themselves can generate the income.
During awareness raising activities in meetings with CMP, the participants are challenged to justify their plans and the amounts requested. The aim is to move their desires towards more realistic requests. Mobilizes and trainers explain that the money loaned to them is not the income itself, but a rented resource to assist the participants to generate their own income. The interest they pay is in payment for the temporary use of that resource. Participants are taught that interest is like a rent for the use of money, a resource that is not owned by themselves, nor given to them as charity.
The Size of the Interest:
The interest to be paid for the use of the credit as a resource, is at commercial rates. The participants obtain the privilege of obtaining credit, and pay market rates of interest as a cost (like rent) of using that credit.
When the scheme was devised, some people asked why these women (many of whom are poor and/or illiterate) would have to make the same sacrifices, go through the same procedures, and pay the same level of interest on those loans, as do commercial applicants. The answer is related to the need for sustainability in generating income, and that charity weakens the recipient. This scheme empowers the participants.
If the scheme were to charge subsidized rates of interest from the beginning, the participants would be trained in receiving charity, and not be trained to obtain credit at commercial rates (after the donor money is no longer available). That weakens, not strengthens, them.
It can be pointed out that individual commercial loan sharks demand up to 350 per cent per annum of the loan back in interest, and that bank loans are considerably cheaper (but not free). After the principles of community strengthening are examined, knowing that CMP training has a long term aim of sustainable development, the charging of commercial rates of interest make sense.
The Required Training:
The Community Management Programme defines the concept "training" in a special way. More than just as the transfer of skills, training is also part of a strategy of strengthening the management capacities of community groups. We talk about training "as" mobilization, not merely training "for" mobilization. We see the training in skills needed to mobilize communities to choose their own actions, identify their priority problems, resources, and plan and implement their own activities, as "content," of the training, but we see the facilitation approach to training as also a vehicle for mobilizing the trainees to reorganize and to take action. This methodology is explained more in other CMP training documents, especially those related to the construction and maintenance of human settlements facilities and services. The basic training principles, however, apply as well to these income generation elements of CMP.
Where training is focused on content (skill transfer), it is assessed in terms of how well the trainees learn skills and information. Where training is focused on mobilization , in contrast, it is assessed on how well it results in community action and increased community-level decision-making.
CMP provides training in several ways. Meetings and workshops provide the financial and management training for organizing the trust groups and the umbrella groups, for setting up the collection and depositing procedures and routines. CMP designs and prints the pay books (similar in design to savings account books used by many banks), and distributes them free to participating women when the groups are formed and mobilized. The groups are taken on one-day field visits to other groups of women engaged in a similar scheme. This gives confidence and a working example for members of the groups participating in the CMP scheme. Even if another scheme is not exactly the same, it demonstrates the value of such field visits as an additional management training method.
Our Training Includes At Least Three Elements:
The three main elements are:
Subsequent to the informal training by the National and District Coordinators, and based on that training, feedback and assessment, more structured workshops can be held. The topics include management skills, organizational and mobilization skills, credit mobilization, banking skills, financial skills, simple accounting, financial recording and reporting, assessment of inventories and resources available, assessment of management and organizational skills, assessment of market availability for product sales. Emphasis should be on encouraging participants to observe and analyse their own resources and potential, and what practical strategies are available. Participants from all communities attend these workshops, so that participants are encouraged by sharing experiences with those in other areas undertaking similar endeavours.
Organizing the Pyramid:
The role of the agency (eg CMP), in its mobilizing and organizing, is to form a pyramid, with an umbrella group at the top, trust groups under that, and individual entrepreneurs at the bottom. Each element has a role in the scheme, and skill training must be added to the mobilizing so that each level will function. The roles are laid out in Appendix One.
Individual and Group Responsibilities:
Experience has shown that when a large group has a collective responsibility to achieve a productive output, there are not enough social and economic controls to ensure full contribution of every member; such schemes invite failure and dissolution. In contrast, it is also well known that when individuals pursue some activities, they are less effective and productive than if they can do so collectively and in an organized manner. The CMP IG scheme capitalizes on these two contradictory forces.
Through standard social animation methods (3)
Footnote (3): Note that Social Animation here refers to several steps in a process, including: awareness raising, community participation promotion, mobilization of people and resources, extension work and community management and financial training.
used by CMP mobilizers, in each target community, groups of women (4)
Footnote (4): Note that men as such are not excluded from this or any other CMP initiative, but its emphasis is on affirmative gender activity, to counterbalance the current gender inequities, based on the fact that the formation of credit rotation groups is usually practised more by women than by men, and that women are more likely to repay loans.
are called to initial meetings, and formed into trust groups. Each person is asked to identify four to six others that she trusted and felt she could work with. Small groups were then formed of those women who trusted each other, this identification process taking several days. Persons who want to participate, but do not have others willing to identify them as trustworthy, are excluded. (5)
Footnote (5): Some others were asked to leave after the group was formed, because they did not participate in meetings and regular contributions.
Individual members are not to engage in communal or co-operative productive activities as a group, but were to pursue their income generation activity (eg the production and sale of soap) as individuals. Perhaps marketing, packaging and transport activities can be done in co-operation with other members of the group. These trust groups are formed primarily on the basis of collecting contributions and obtaining credit, but not in order to collectively engage in economic production.
Each trust group is composed of five or seven persons (an odd number chosen for cultural reasons and simplicity of accounting). In turn, five or seven trust groups form an "umbrella group," which is the unit for making deposits in the bank and obtaining loans from the bank.
The Traditional Credit Rotation Groups:
In many countries in Africa and Asia, small groups of people known to each other, members of the same village or even working mates, form small credit rotation groups. Every routine period, perhaps weekly, usually every month, every member of the group puts in a small, easily collected, amount of money.
When the money was collected, it was given to one member of the credit rotation group in turn. This person could be chosen by lot, or when there is a death of a relative, and often is used for funeral expenses. (Often the members also all attend a funeral of a relative of one of its members). When the money was distributed by lot, the recipient could use the money in some form of investment, where s/he would not save such an amount if s/he did not have the support of the group.
Those who can afford to do so, put in multiples of the amounts put in by those who can put in only the minimum.
Some of these credit rotation clubs may be funeral groups, where the collected capital is given to the member who is most in need of paying funeral expenses. In other clubs, the money raised may be distributed according to communal decisions made each month by the members as a group, who determine which member shall get it each time. Others distribute the total on a random bases by pulling straws. Over a period, every member gets a turn to obtain the full amount put in by all members.
The groups are small, and are viable only because the members know and trust each other, and can use sanctions against offending members, based on well known social control dynamics of small groups.
The modification to the practices of these groups is that in the CMP scheme the amount collected in each period is not simply distributed to a chosen member of the group; it is put into a bank account. These bank deposits are used for obtaining a loan. Later the deposits are also used for repayment of the loans.
The small groups, called trust groups, which collect the money from the individual participants, must therefore operate on trust. The association of small groups into an umbrella group is the larger organization that deals with the commercial bank.
Monitoring and Assessment:
There are several levels of monitoring and assessment. From the national level and the overall country programme, it is necessary to see how well the overall scheme is operating, and to give direction and encouragement to the field officers.
From the point of view of the community groups, it is important to ensure that the activities are what they have chosen, and produce the results that they desire. In between, the District Coordinators need encouragement of their own activities, and feedback from the national office, as well as providing the same to the community groups.
Monitoring and Backstopping:
The CMP District Coordinator meets members of the micro enterprises women's group often, giving them encouragement and praise. S/he meets them all once a week for a two hour meeting. There s/he receives reports about their activities, amounts deposited and accumulated, how the production activities are faring, and how the scheme is progressing so far. Training sessions, both formal and informal, have included topics such as financial planning, accounting, keeping records, making reports, and assessing viability of proposed productive activities. The CMP National Coordinator makes frequent visits to all communities to monitor and encourage, as a backstopping support to the district coordinators, and to supplement their encouragement to the community groups.
Conclusions and Recommendations:
Summary: CMP's support to income generation should be in three parts:
As with other CMP elements, these three elements must be linked and integrated, and training must be aimed at action, not only on skill transfer.
Appendix 1: Roles of the Key Actors:
Individual Target Participant:
CMP (or implementing agency):
Productive Activity: Generating Wealth: