1996 July to December
|Major Events||Changes in Environment||Progress to Objectives|
This report is the result of joint team efforts. Contributions were made by Osinde Owor, NPC, Dr Phil, CTA, Godfrey Kuruhiira, DPC Mubende, Ruth Muguta, DPC Kampala, Anthony Mwanje, DPC Mpigi, Monica Rujumba, FAA.
|Major Events of the Second Half of the Year||Next, Back or Top|
Mr. Joshua Ogwang, CMP National Coordinator since September 1994, was promoted in the Ministry to Commissioner. A new National Coordinator was appointed by the Ministry, Mr Osinde Owor. He completed his orientation and briefing, making several field trips to all the operational districts of CMP. He brings with him experience in the Unicef-supported Water and Sanitation (WATSAN, now WES) programme, and continues to maintain liaison with WES for the Ministry, thus also benefiting CMP's aim of closer links with related agencies, organizations and projects.
The National Steering Committee (NSC) sat twice (October 30 and November 22). Authorization was given to redesignate District CDOs as the Kampala and Mpigi DPCs. The extraordinary NSC meeting in November, gave a go ahead to initiate the Income Generation (IG) element of CMP.
In October there was a redesignation of the DPCs of Mpigi and Kampala. The former DPC of Mpigi, Tabisa Mawano, was replaced by the DCDO of Mpigi, Anthony Mwanje, and the former DPC of Kampala, James Luyima, was replaced by Ruth Muguta, the CDO for Kampala. This redesignation was in response to the report of the Joint Review Mission of 1994 (May 17 to June 7) recommendations, and constituted the final implementation of all the JET recommendations. The hand over exercises were accomplished successfully.
Mr. Osinde Owor, NPC, participated in the GoU - Unicef Country Programme of Co-ordination, Communication and Advocacy (CCA), Skills Development Training Manuals, held in Rakai September 23-27. This document is to be used by the Government of Uganda for its Unicef country programmes, 1995-2000, for community information management. Mr. Osinde Owor, NPC, also attended the annual review of Unicef Uganda Programmes, November 28 to review progress and seek solutions to constraints.
The Ag. Director for Community Development, Joshua Ogwang, in the presence of District officials and the community members, handed over a cheque to the Nakawa CBO for hand wash closet toilets in colourful ceremonies, covered by the press. This helped CMP to appear in higher public profile.
CMP has been liaising with other programmes such as UNICEF's WES, UNCDF's DDP, World Bank's PUIP, and with several NGOs, with an aim in 1997 to develop partnerships.
The UNCHS CMP Coordinator, Mr. Gert Ludeking, visited Uganda December 10-13. While on mission, he held meetings with the project staff and Ministry and UNDP officials, participated in the commissioning of St. Kizito Primary School, Namigavu, Mubende District, by the MG&CD Permanent Secretary, and visited the Nakawa Sewer Drainage Project.
Preparations for the recruitment of NPPs are being finalized; short listing and invitations have already been completed. (Interviews have been arranged for 1997 January 21-22).
|Changes in the Action Environment||Next, Back or Top|
Changes in the environment within which CMP is operating. All events included here are those over which the CMP project could not effect any control.Parliamentary election took place in July and it created some differences in opinions at the time. They have mostly died out, however, and communities are again engaged in their planned activities. As a result of changes in cabinet following the election, the Vice President of Uganda, Hon Kazibwe, no longer holds the post of Minister of Gender and Community Development. Hon Janat Mukwaya has become the new Minister. The Minister of State for MG&CD, Hon Baguma Isoke, has now become the new Minister for Natural Resources. The new Minister of State for MG&CD is Hon. Coker.
The wars in the North and West of Uganda continue, making security a problem in those areas. Events in Sudan, Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi continue to affect the bordering districts of Uganda. CMP does not currently operate in those districts, but military conflicts hinder plans for expansion to them. We are grateful that they are happening out of our operational areas, but they do contribute to some general negativity and uncertainty in the nation as a whole. Most Ugandans do not want the country to return to the civil wars of the past few decades.
|Progress Towards Objectives:||Next, Back or Top|
|1. Mobilization||2. Training||3. Projects||4. Community Management|
|5. Government Reorientation||6. Policy Formation||7. Monitoring|
Establishing an information, monitoring and evaluation system for CMP, for example, has not been fully institutionalized. While much skill training, such as "How to Write Progress Reports," (through informal on the job training, workshops, and production of training materials) has been imparted to the DPCs, CDAs and mobilizers, there is still no community-based format for communities to evaluate their own projects. We are expecting one of the three expected National Professionals to be assigned to rectifying this.
The following sub sections examine each of the seven objectives of CMP Uganda, and indicate the degree to which the project has moved towards reaching them.
|1. Mobilization:||Next, Back or Top|
To support community members, especially women, in their efforts of taking active part in planning, implementation and maintenance of the provision of community facilities, services and housing improvements in their settlements and thereby creating movements/organizations responding to their needs in an effort of democratizing the development process in low-income settlements.Among the target communities, the mobilization and training that have so far been conducted have resulted in many tangible results. The communities continue to identify, prioritize, plan and manage their own programmes. The submission of well written proposals by some communities is a testimony of this success. The general trend in the communities is the realization that they have local resources which they can tap to enhance their development. They now see the donors as partners in development instead of initiators of development. They now see themselves as actors of their own development rather than expecting other people to work for their development.
The National Office continued to implement the JET recommendations: eg redesignation of CDOs as DPCs in Mpigi and Kampala Districts, recruitment of NPPs, Steering Committee meetings, working out the modalities of Income Generation Schemes and monitoring activities in the field.
|2. Training:||Next, Back or Top|
To involve women in the formulation and implementation of community improvement programmes as planners and physical builders of community facilities, services and housing improvements generating income for them, as educators of children and adults regarding environmental awareness and protection, and as managers of community facilities and services.Some outsiders have claimed that this programme has carried out too much training at the expense of other activities. Training, in the CMP sense, however, included not only training ABOUT mobilization, but also training AS mobilization. CMP is fundamentally a "training" not a hardware construction programme, and should be judged by the results of its training, not on hardware construction. "Increased capacity: among target groups is not a very visible result. What is needed in CMP, is for the training to be more focussed on stimulating community groups to undertake the construction and maintenance of human settlements facilities, which are physical and more visible than something nebulous as "capacity building," so that the progress of CMP would be more noticeable, therefore more appreciated.
Income Generating Training, as a major element in generating income among target groups, has lain un-implemented for most of CMP Uganda's operations. Much of the last half of 1996, in contrast, was devoted to developing a scheme of income generation that can be implemented after the National Professional for Income Generation comes on board.
Four proposals have been received for income generation activities. In the sector of Income Generation, whose objective is poverty reduction, we expect to play it slow until the NPP Income Generation Trainer is in place to plan and run seminars on this subject:
In Wampewo, women were assisted in proposal writing for income generation projects.
The planned workshop and home improvement was not run because of personnel changes in District Coordinators. Communities have already been sensitized on integration of gender in planning development activities and have elected some women who are active on the implementation committees of the projects construction.
One community member from each parish was trained and the DPC attended the two day workshop on finance and expenditure organized by the CMP head office.
One community member from each parish was trained at, and the DPC attended, the two day workshop on finance and expenditure organized by the CMP head office.
After the awareness on home improvement campaign, the activities had encouraging results, with visible social and physical results in the targeted villages, both domestic and public facility improvement. Fifty homes and one sub-county headquarters are improved in Kisekende, Mubende.
Several strategies and plans were drawn by the DPC and Gender Officer, aimed at improving human survival standards and gender balanced strategy in reference to: (a) community priorities of education, income generation, water, health and housing in Kisekende; and (b) priorities of water, education, income generation, health and infrastructure in Namigavu.
These strategies resulted
in a village-to-village plan of action to sensitize men and women on gender
promotion of women groups and clubs and creation of a home improvement
Formal training sessions were held with the community mobilizers and the topics covered included the basic principles of social animation, basic principles of community management, project proposal writing and the aims and objectives of CMP. Informal brainstorming on credit mechanism, participation of two of two community members in the Administrative and Financial Management workshop and urban community development activities were carried out.
Training was organized on VIP toilet construction and garbage management.
On a small scale, in Nakawa parish, women in the Bwara Kwemu Women's Group produced cakes, scones, buns and handicrafts, as an income generation activity, where they get some money. This money distributed amongst members is used to purchase necessities of life and has positive impact to people's life style.
Meanwhile, the urban farming in Nakawa serves not only as an assistance to waste management and hygiene, but also income generation.
Training seminars and workshops had a positive impact on the communities. The ever increasing demands and requests for more training in various sectors such as income generation, project management and managing project accounts are a manifestation of the community members' desires to be equipped with skills with which to manage their own programmes.
The CTA, Dr Phil, was invited by the Kampala office of Concern to provide a one day intervention for their planners, managers, mobilizers and community representatives. CMP Senior Secretary, Sophia Kyamanywa accompanied him. The Concern (an Irish based NGO) management in Uganda has adopted the CMP project cycle approach, and has a field methodology very similar to that of CMP, as determined by Dr Phil in the workshop while he was presenting the CMP approach. This is a positive result of the liaison activities in Kampala which began over the second half of 1995 and has continued up to present. It also reconfirms the viability of CMP having a wider impact than its own pilot target communities by providing leadership and professional guidance to such NGOs (as per objective six).
|3. Community Based Projects:||Next, Back or Top|
To establish a number of community facilities, services and housing improvements in the above mentioned rural and urban settlements selected for the project activities;Several contract agreements have been signed with communities for funding. Some projects have been funded while others are not funded because of financial constraints or because proposals have not reflected good project design. Central Government counterpart flow is low while local contribution is non existent; the community inputs amount to at least half the value of each project, reflecting CMP's "strengthening" methodology; it does not provide charity.
To date, twelve construction of community facilities proposals have been submitted. See Community Based Projects CMP has signed contract agreements with most of the implementing community based groups for funding assistance to these construction projects. Some are already completed as indicated.
In Wampewo, seven of the
ten shallow wells were completed.
CMP has advised the Nakawa community members to stick to the original project proposal.
In Kiwatule, an extension of a 2 1/2 km piped water project was accomplished. The community members are encouraged to look after the sources effectively through their committees. The people participated in excavating a trench of 2 1/2 kilometres, for which 500 homes have contributed in labour, cash, food, transport and other kinds of contribution.
|4. Community Management:||Next, Back or Top|
To develop and implement an effective and sustainable management and maintenance system for community facilities and services;This aspect of community empowerment is most advanced in the water sector, such as the Kisekende water project. Water supply is a sector where maintenance has a high visibility and importance.
|5. Governmental Reorientation:||Next, Back or Top|
To support the process in the government and other relevant public organizations in re-orienting their roles and interventions from being the providers of community facilities and services to being facilitators of community action programmes (enabling strategy).CMP Uganda is fortunate to be operating in a political climate of increasing democratization, especially through a national decentralization exercise. CMP sees itself as a practical complement to this national political process, in promoting the increased capacity of low income communities to do things for themselves, and in promoting leaders, civil servants and technical specialists to move more towards an "enabling" approach in contrast to the dependency-creating "provision" approach.
The implications on the desired movement from provision to facilitation, of the recent changes at ministerial and senior civil servant level of the Government, remain to be seen, but so far we see indications that this approach will continue to be supported.
At the district level, CMP staff continued encouraging District Co-ordinating Teams to guide implementors and to keep heads of departments abreast with the programme activities. Districts are appreciating the programme as an appropriate methodology for rural development and are calling for some reorientation sessions that can enable them expand in other parishes. District Local Government is already urging for budget allocations from political leaders for the programme.
|6. Policy Formation:||Next, Back or Top|
To formulate a viable and replicable policy and strategy for community management in securing services and facilities for low- income communities.The spirit of exposing the purpose of CMP of training communities to choose and plan their own development and counteract tendencies towards community dependency and apathy is gaining strength. This is more consolidated because of the decentralisation policy being implemented in all the districts of the country. Communities are involved in planning and management of their programmes. Weak areas are being revealed and corrective measures are being under taken by the people themselves. This is a conducive and enabling environment.
Meeting the new Minister of Gender and Community Development, Hon Janat Mukwaya, and the Country Representative of UNDP, Prof A Babatunde Thomas October 17, the status of the Ministry programmes were listed, and CMP was highlighted. (The Res Rep mentioned plans to cluster CMP with DDP). Since the Minister was new, this opportunity was used to orientate her on CMP methodology.
CMP has realized that one way to influence policy has been for the Ministry to provide guidance and leadership in community management methodology to other implementors, especially international NGOs and other projects in the social sectors. To this effect, the Ministry has been preparing a Policy Document for such guidance, and CMP sees a role for itself soon in assisting the Ministry to complete its draft and finalization of this document.
The Directorate of Community Development is working on a policy paper on Community Development that is expected to come out with an operational framework for government and all stake holders. CMP finds itself in an opportune position by assisting the Directorate in finalizing this paper.
|7. Monitoring:||Next, Back or Top|
To establish information, monitoring and evaluation systems for use by planning, implementing and financing agencies, CBOs, and NGOs related to the above objectives.This is so far the weakest area of the programme. In the absence of the evaluator who would be monitoring and evaluating the activities regularly, it has not been possible for staff, especially at headquarters, to carry out monitoring effectively. Establishing a sustainable system for CMP has not been fully institutionalized. While informal skills training on issues such as "How to write Progress Reports" has been imparted to the DPCs, CMP Uganda still has no community based format for communities to evaluate their own programmes.
We hope to have at least a draft designed monitoring system in the first half of 1997. Meanwhile, verbal, informal discussions and some supervisory and monitoring duties carried out have yielded some positive results as exemplified earlier .
Meanwhile, substantial information that can be used for evaluation is being produced by the Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR). The research is about the Evolution and Application of the Concepts of Community Participation, Community Management and Enabling Government of Uganda. The specific objectives of the study are to identify and trace the evolution of the community participation and community management concepts, from the beginning of the programme to the present; to assess the conceptual validity of the concepts in the light of past and present thinking on the subject, and of regional differences; to assess the practical; effectiveness of the concepts; that is to say, the translation of these concepts into practice, in the light of the experience and performance of the projects of the programme; and to make recommendations for strengthening and improving the concepts for each of the regions, with a view to a more effective and wider application of these in development projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As CMP staff assist the MISR researchers, they are confronted with evaluation of issues at the heart of the CMP methodology.
It must be pointed out, here, that CMP itself is not a community based programme. Decisions made in Denmark to fund UNCHS, or by UNCHS in Nairobi to initiate and fund CMP Uganda, are not made by members of the target community, even if a few of them have been consulted in the past. What can be "community-based" evaluation and monitoring, are the community activities decided upon by community members themselves. Meanwhile, CMP itself has not designed or implemented a systematic process or system of monitoring and evaluation of its own activities, let alone institutionalized such a system.
|Constraints||Next, Back or Top|
The land tenure system
does not favour the construction of communal projects in urban areas and
this is why construction in Nakawa Parish has lagged behind.
Other programmes, fortunately, including the Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES), Plan International, Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP), do not encourage dependency attitudes. This fact buttresses CMP objectives and has created more acceptance.
The vehicles are all in a state of requiring many expensive repairs.
The programme requires new computers and vehicles.
|Other Activities||Next, Back or Top|
This section includes those direct activities that took place which did not contribute to reaching project objectives.
An international Workshop on Training Strategies (for Community Participation Training) was held in Zambia, October 10-16. It was attended by the Acting Director of Community Development, Joshua Ogwang, the new NPC, Osinde Owor, the CTA Dr. Phil Bartle, and Dr. Harriet Birungi and Prof. Patrick Muzaale from Makerere University (MISR). The workshop provided an opportunity for selected researchers, trainers and Community Development Programme UNCHS staff from Nairobi, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia, to exchange experiences on training strategies for community participation and management. It was followed directly with another workshop for planning the CMP Africa research, part of the Netherlands supported ISS (Institute of Social Studies in The Hague) study of CMP and CDP in Ghana, Zambia and Uganda.
Mr Robert Kapopo, Africa Regional Coordinator of UNCHS CDP, visited Uganda September 17-20 to initiate dialogue viz a regional process of community development. CMP Uganda has pledged to offer all appropriate and available support to this process, which is aimed at furthering the sharing of experiences in this field with neighbouring countries, Tanzania and Kenya, as well as to determine the kinds of regional resources that which would benefit programmes such as CMP Uganda.
October 31 to November 2, Dr. Phil Bartle, CTA participated in the Expert Group Meeting on "Community and Resources Management," in Copenhagen, as a guest of Danida. The objective of the meeting was to review strategies and challenges on community management as an equitable, democratic and cost-effective tool for local development.
The CTA, Dr. Phil Bartle, undertook took two missions to Tanzania, October 21-23 and December 22-24, on the invitation of the Minister of Community Development, Women Affairs and Children, Hon Mary Nagu, to contribute to a cabinet policy paper on community development in Tanzania, and to liaise with respect to Tanzania's desire to initiate a CMP similar to those in Ghana and Uganda.
Mr Gert Ludeking, the CMP Coordinator visited the programme December 10-13. During his visit, he had consultation meetings with UNDP and Ministry officials. He participated in the commissioning of St. Kizito Primary School, Mubende, and visited Nakawa Sewer Drainage project where he advised Nakawa community members to consolidate self dependency.
Dr. Phil Bartle, Chief Technical Adviser, went on a home leave (60 days) to his home country, Canada. He returned at the beginning of September. He is welcome back to the land of no winter.
The CTA, Dr. Phil Bartle, shifted his residence from Kabalagala, Kampala, to Luzira, Kabalega Crescent 25, and held a house warming party in December. All CMP staff were invited and most attended. Unfortunately, Dr Phil has not yet been able to obtain telephone service for his new residence.
Tabisa Mawano, DPC Mpigi, and James Luyima, DPC Kampala, left CMP in October; and were replaced by Anthony Mwanje (Mpigi) and Ruth Muguta (Kampala). The two new DPCs are very much welcomed to CMP. Best wishes to Tabisa and James.
Sadly, the mother of Office Attendant, Maria Namujuzi, passed away.
Josephat Byarugaba, driver for Mubende, fathered a baby boy in November 1996.
The Mubende and Mpigi drivers went on annual leave in November and December respectively.
CMP Management has decided to rotate all the CMP drivers for their 1997 contracts.
Senior Secretary, Sophia Kyamanywa, attended a secretarial studies course in 1996 August to November and graduated in December.
|Recommendations||Next, Back, or Top|
Much training is still required for the communities and community actors, particularly for Kampala, which has lagged behind.
Groups whose proposals for income generation have been approved should be assisted in their endeavours to alleviate poverty.
Social mobilizers should be facilitated in their mobility and group skills to enable them play their role more effectively.
Efforts should be made to establish a community based information, monitoring and evaluation system.
More training in 'Proposal Writing' and 'Mobilizing Funds for Local Development' is required.
There is need to train community members in banking skills and micro enterprise for income generation.
CMP staff should begin putting issues to contribute to a position paper in preparation for a CMP-2, especially listing lessons learned and their implications for a design of another CMP.
Non-release of funds in certain months, has also upset our planned programmes. Government counter-part contribution should be fulfilled as per ProDoc agreement.
We request that Local Government explore ways that the monies raised in the district, for which fifty per cent is now to remain in the districts, can be used in part to contribute to community based projects which, up to now are funded only by CMP and the target communities themselves.
We request that the LCs debate ways that the moneys raised in the district, for which fifty per cent is now to remain in the district, can be used in part to contribute to community based projects which, up to now are funded only by CMP and the target communities themselves.
The District Technical Teams are dormant. Attempts to reactivate them is finalized so that they play their management and advisory roles to the implementing teams. Its composition has been restructured as per the demands of the district Sectoral Committees.
|Appendices||Next, Back, or Top|
Disclaimer:The above document expresses the views of the authors only, and is not necessarily the official executive policy of the UN, SCN, CDS, any NGO or any ministry that implements community development projects.