1997 January to June
This report is the result of joint team efforts. Contributions were made by Osinde Owor, NPC, Dr Phil, CTA, Godfrey Kuruhiira, DPC Mubende, Ruth Muguta, DPC Kampala, Anthony Mwanje, DPC Mpigi, Monica Rujumba, FAA. For the first time in this series of reports, we were joined by the new National Professionals, Mary Frances Owor (Training material and Curriculum Development), Emmanuel Ssewankamba (Animation and Monitoring) and James Tugyende (Credit and Income Generation).
|Major Events of the Second Half of the Year||Next, Back or Top|
CMP has been liaising with other programmes such as UNICEF's WES, UNCDF's DDP, World Bank's PUIP, and with several NGOs, with an aim in 1997 to develop partnerships.
|Changes in the Action Environment||Next, Back or Top|
Changes in the environment within which CMP is operating. All events included here are those over which the CMP project could not effect any control.Local Government Bill 1997 that empowers local authorities at sub-county level to retain 65% of resources collected was passed as law. This is conducive to CMP as part of economic and political environment was accommodative to the programme which made us realize progress as reported in this period.
|Progress Towards Objectives:||Next, Back or Top|
This time monitoring and evaluation were addressed by not only CMP staff but even members of National Steering Committee.
An attempt to establish an information, monitoring and evaluation system is being addressed seriously especially by the NPPP for Social Animation and Community-based Evaluation Facilitator. The use of NPPP shall promote maximum achievement in the next six moths of implementation.
The programme has carried out training in different fields. Most of the skills acquired are now put into practice, i.e., construction work.
The attitude where communities expect big hand outs from CMP as a donor is dying out slowly. People now understand the CMP methodology of a facilitator not as a provider.
Audio visual materials at head office are shared with field offices.
The following sub sections examine each of the seven objectives of CMP Uganda, and indicate the degree to which the project has moved towards reaching them.
|1. Mobilization:||Next, Back or Top|
To support community members, especially women, in their efforts of taking active part in planning, implementation and maintenance of the provision of community facilities, services and housing improvements in their settlements and thereby creating movements/organizations responding to their needs in an effort of democratizing the development process in low-income settlements.Among the target communities, the training and mobilization carried out have yielded tangible results. The communities continue making proposals improved upon by reserved district coordinative committees. The submission of well-written proposals is a testimony of this.
Besides, all districts have budgeted for CMP funds. All these are efforts of mobilization exercises offered to top district officials to realize that CMP is part other district development programmes.
The following achievements have been realized:
Linkage with Nsamizi Social Development Institute: In May, the DPC approached the institute to explore areas of collaboration. As a result two diploma students have been seconded to CMP Mpigi for the three-month field work. The students seconded were: Francis Sendikwanawa and Albino Etam. The DPC has already oriented them to the programme and soon they will be starting their fieldwork which will end in August 1997.
Multi Sectoral Collaboration: This year has realized deliberate mobilization toward multi sectoral collaboration so as to tap resources in other sectors. This has been mainly with the Works and Forestry Department who provided transport in form of tractors, and trailers. A Health Assistant in charge of Nangabo sub-county strengthens the water and sanitation activities. District Information Department for newspaper article on the Bume project and the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Physical Planning for a Construction Technician were seconded to the programme.
In Kisekende mobilization of the resources for construction of the two primary schools continued in Buswera and Lwabagabo. In Namigavu the people were mobilized to clear the project site and transport the bricks for the Nanzirugadde Health Centre.
Women's groups were mobilized and, the Kyamuguma Women's group now has a Credit and Savings Scheme with over 300,000/=.
There was an income generating groups meeting for the bee keepers who are processing a training proposal to request CMP assistance and the Kyamuguma women's group were planning to have a fund raising.
In Kisekende home campaigns continued. In Namigavu, the mobilizers have also embarked on improvement of their homes. They have built new houses using permanent materials and had a chance to buy exotic cattle auctioned on a farm nearby. Communities continued to be mobilized for home improvement, a member of Kyeguluso village and a trainer in Kisekende won the first prize for the best improved home in Buwekula County.
The Kikunyu Women Group was set up and is working on a piggery project with other villages concentrating on other projects like Namatabba, Kajoji and Kitotolo are on horticulture while Ssebada owns a water project.
In May 1997, a sensitization and mobilization exercise was carried out informing of a meeting at Buswera Primary School in Kisekende Parish between the CDA, Development Committee members and community mobilizers to forge a way forward to complete Buswera Primary School construction projects and the Kisekende Access Road. While in Namigavu Parish, the communities were mobilized for communal work at Nanzirugadde Health Unit.
In Nakawa, they have been encouraged to participate and contribute materials toward finishing the Wash Hand Closet toilet. This has been done by the CDAs plus other extension staff with the help of the mobilizers and local leaders.
Income generation operational guidelines are being finalised by NPP-IG.
The objectives of the consultative field trips were to establish the types of community empowerment training and training materials being used by various organizations. It is envisaged by the NPPP that the best way to formulate a community empowerment curriculum and training materials is to involve all the stakeholders.
The CTA conducted a number of briefings and training sessions which included among others the formulation of a standard check list on how to conduct workshops and the formulation of district prospectus for Mpigi and Kampala districts. The CTA from time to time conducted lessons on computer operations to both head office and district staff. He also carried out an orientation exercise to the NPPS when they came on board.
|2. Training:||Next, Back or Top|
To involve women in the formulation and implementation of community improvement programmes as planners and physical builders of community facilities, services and housing improvements generating income for them, as educators of children and adults regarding environmental awareness and protection, and as managers of community facilities and services.The involvement of women, our target group in income generation activities, has gained momentum.
The DPC attended a two-week course in Planning and Management of Community Development projects in first week of May 1997. The course was organized and conducted by WES in Tororo district. The course was mainly on analytical skills in planning and managerial skills in project implementation.
At the end of February 1997 there was an inter-district study tour where seven people from Maziba Parish visited Namigavu Parish and shared experiences. During this first half, there hasn't been any formal training in communities for the priority was on project construction to utilize skills got from earlier training. There was an orientation briefing for two Nsamizi students and the three NPPS who visited the district on 23 May, 1997. However, Directorate of Water Development invited DPC/CDO for two weeks training, a course on planning and management of community development projects that took place from 26 May-7 June 1997 at Rock Hotel, Tororo.
The Kisekende Development Association submitted their training proposal for bee-keepers in the parish to benefit 15 homesteads as a move to promote income generation.
Project members, district leaders and headmasters held discussions with the NPC and Chris Williams from UNCHS (Habitat), Nairobi on key issues like project management, development association, roles of Parish Development Committees and Parish Councils.
During the exchange visit of Maziba Community members to Namigavu Parish a lot of experience was shared and ideas exchanged on how to tackle the different challenges community committees meet.
The CDAs in the project areas met their fellow CDAs in the district in a 5-day staff capacity building workshop on child care and protection held at the district headquarters.
The CDA for Namigavu was nominated to attend 3 months mobilization course at Seeta conducted by WES programme under UNICEF by Nsamizi Institute of Social Development.
The NSC members toured the two parishes and in their contact with the community they advised them and they too had a lot to learn that shall field into policy formation.
Thirteen community members of Kisekende Parish exchanged experience, knowledge and ideas through exchange tours to inspect various community and income generating projects. Discussions held covered:
Training in computer operation was done for the new DPCs, Anthony Mwanje of Mpigi, Ruth Muguta of Kampala and for Maria Namujuzi the office attendant at the head office.
The typist at the head office, Teddy Apio undertook a secretarial improvement course at Uganda Management Institute and she is due to continue from October 1997 to 1998 June.
|3. Community Based Projects:||Next, Back or Top|
To establish a number of community facilities, services and housing improvements in the above mentioned rural and urban settlements selected for the project activities;See Community Based Projects
CMP is attempting to accomplish old projects before embarking on new ones.
The request by the community of a Construction Technician, Mr Chris Wakaza from the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Physical Planning was granted and seconded to this project as technical contribution from the ministry.
The Michael Kawali School Construction project of Maziba Parish is still on. Technical assistance from Ministry of Lands, Housing and Physical Planning is still being offered and the wall building is indeed on. Funds for construction work are being easily got from the bank. Planning activities for the next half year (July-December, 1997) have been tackled.
The Mpigi District Local Government has budget for CMP activities for 1997/98 to the tune of Uganda shillings 3 m.
No project construction work took place. The identified mason declined to do the work for he needed a huge amount of money.
Wampewo Parish. The DPC communicated to the chairman, Wampewo Development Committee to provide for the following information before CMP proceeds.
In Wampewo, the communities were still working on their next proposal.
The uncompleted three wells of 1995 are being looked into by cost revision.
Magere Primary School Construction: The plan for the building has been completed and the land title agreement also acquired. The communities have been advised by CMP to revise their budget including the one of CMP that need not exceed Uganda shillings 9 M.
In consultation with the WES programme, Mpigi CMP decided to revisit the costs of the shallow wells so as to include community contribution in order to make correction on initial wrong approach by the former DPC.
Buswera Primary School; sand was dug and a pit latrine and construction went above window level.
Water sources in Kisekende; a water valley dam and members were advised to seek technical assistance staff of ActionAid to advise on the water source site.
Exchange visits as a mode of study was used to expose communities and let them share experiences, these included Maziba to Namigavu and Kisekende to Namigavu. Issues of discussion centred on, the leaderships, relation with the people, achievements and challenges.
Work is in progress in Nanzirugadde, Buswera and at Lwabagabo Primary Schools.
Assistance toward projects was received from CMP for the Buswera Primary School of UShs.1,200,000/=, Access Roads Improvement Kisekende UShs.3,000,000 and Nanzirugadde Health Unit assistance is yet to be received but the cheques mentioned above were handed over to the management committees on 20 February, 1997 by the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Gender and Community Development.
Construction of Buswera Primary School Block is on gear and is at a ring beam. The Nanzirugadde Health Unit is at foundation level as they look forward to receiving the CMP contribution as a supplement.
Light College Kisekende Project is complete and accountability of funds is being tackled by the District Authorities.
The Access Road work at Kisekende is at a stand still due to four mechanical conditions of machines. However, something is being done to put them on required condition. For water sources protection at Namigavu, the proposals are still with the communities.
In Kiwatule, the community is in the process of formulating the proposal for construction of the market. The District Health Inspector (DHI) and the City Planners have allowed the construction of the market in Kiwatule area.
The completed ones are Kisekende Senior Secondary School, St. Kizito Primary School, Namigavu, Kisekende Rural Feeder Road all in Mubende District, Wampewo Shallow wells, Maziba Primary School in Mpigi District and Kiwatule Water Extension in Kampala.
Those which are still under consideration in phases are Nakawa Hand Wash Closet in Kampala, Buswera Primary School, and the Nanzirugadde Health Centre in Mubende.
|4. Community Management:||Next, Back or Top|
To develop and implement an effective and sustainable management and maintenance system for community facilities and services;
A new treasurer of SPWC Mr Godfrey Sempewo was introduced to the Bank Manager, Uganda Commercial Bank, Mpigi and now he is one of the three signatories of Savings Account 4421.
Technical know how was availed to the special working committee of Maziba by an official of Ministry of Lands, Housing and Physical Planning. A builder who was later on dropped out due to demand for high payment was identified.
The community capacity in managing their own affairs is growing stronger and stronger, which was manifested in Namigavu on how they hosted their visitors and from their draft TOR document which they intend to use to register their organisation as a CBO.
The NSC members on their visit to the communities observed that there is a high-level capacity building exhibited as communities were able to articulate issues from a homestead, village to Local Government level. During the MGCD and district officials meeting many issues for streamlining the operations and performance of the programme were raised. The research interviews carried out brought out many issues that need to be addressed especially on partnership as a means of capacity building in community management.
All parishes have PDCs, the Namigavu PDC has just been elected and requires training to effectively take up its duties.
There are indicators that community committees are becoming strong and stronger especially in Namigavu. This is evidenced by 8 houses/structures put up by 10 trained masons while construction work was on St. Kizito Primary School in Namigavu and 5 houses by others trained in Kisekende.
Also, the community members' discussion during the study tour is a testimony to the process of built capacity.
Promote a sense of ownership by fully engaging the district officials and especially the District Coordinating Committee in routine follow up of the activities.
Give a chance for exchange views and experiences between high level government officers and local communities.
To press upon the district officials to begin physical financial contribution to programme activities as a step towards ownership.
|5. Governmental Reorientation:||Next, Back or Top|
To support the process in the government and other relevant public organizations in re-orienting their roles and interventions from being the providers of community facilities and services to being facilitators of community action programmes (enabling strategy).The encouragement of District Programme Coordinators and extension staffs to change from traditional roles of providers of Government services to that of facilitators of community based action programmes is still on gear and is gaining support. With the enabling policy of decentralisation, district and other Local Government officials and staff is getting to realise the changing roles of Government and need to strengthen partnerships and adopt CMPs strategies and practices and the need to training which targets the key officials in the political and technical arena at district LC1 and LC3.
|6. Policy Formation:||Next, Back or Top|
To formulate a viable and replicable policy and strategy for community management in securing services and facilities for low- income communities.Government policy of decentralisation and democratization has enabled CMP to exist amicably. In the process, communities are being strengthened through support to their initiatives. The CTA, NPC and DPCs have marshalled concerted efforts toward this cause.
|7. Monitoring:||Next, Back or Top|
To establish information, monitoring and evaluation systems for use by planning, implementing and financing agencies, CBOs, and NGOs related to the above objectives.In Mpigi, the DPC has carried out regular monitoring visits to the community projects. This has been difficult because of the absence of Community Development Assistants in the sub-counties where CMP has activities. There were also some follow ups from the two parishes by the National Programme Coordinator, Mr Osinde Owor. On his field visit to the parish, the Coordinator, Community Development Programme for Africa, Mr Robert Kapopo made a donation of U$100 toward community activities. Lecturers from Nsamizi Social Development Institute on the Curriculum review exercise. The lecturers made a donation of US$5. Thirteen trainees in Community Development projects, Uganda Management Institute. The delegates from the Community Development Sub-Regional Workshop for the development of EARF from Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda visited Maziba communities on 24 April, 1997 and donated US$.52. The members of the NSC visited the communities from 21-22 March, 1997 not only in Mpigi but also Kampala and Mubende Districts. The visit of the NSC members on the other hand was one way of external monitoring and evaluation.
In Mubende the trainees in masonary trained on the job on the two projects have built five houses in Kisekende whereas those in Namigavu have put 3 personal houses and another five houses for community members.
The district hosted MISR researchers on partnership for sustainability of CMP during the month.
The DPC and CDAs continued to monitor, guide and encourage project committees on how to go about their work.
The three NPPPs also visited the district as a point of entry and were guided in the fields to assess the levels of CMP activities.
The NPC and FAA and Chris Williams visited the communities on a monitoring exercise.
In Kampala, monitoring has been done by the DPC, CDAs and community members.
|Constraints||Next, Back or Top|
In Mubende, Buswera and Nanzirugadde the community committees were given land agreement by the land owners.
In Kampala, land security is still a problem for there is, no public land.
This is very prevalent in the community. A number of income generating activities like the one of the CMP and Poverty Alleviation Programme aim at reducing it. But much head way has been realised as planned.
Provision of motorcycles to CDAs would ease the work overload of vehicles.
It is also noticed that the way equipments are used in the field is not good, e.g., a photocopier that has capacity for CMP work is being used for all district departments.
|Other Activities||Next, Back or Top|
This section includes those direct activities that took place which did not contribute to reaching project objectives.The DPC Mubende interacted with the Director for Community Development, Ghana, while on a visit on decentralization in June 1997. The DPC participated in the district development programme monitoring and evaluation formulation.
From 8-10 January 1997, the CTA visited UNCHS (Habitat) for project consultations with the CDP Coordinator. In February 1997, Dr Phil Bartle, CTA visited the Ministry of Community Development, Women Affairs and Children in Tanzania. This was a further mission, linked to those of 1996 October 21-23 and December 23-24. The role of his mission was to push forward negotiations leading to a Tanzania CMP, integrated with those of CDP, WHSDP, SIEP and EARF. This mission was achieved, and the meetings proved fruitful and productive. The officials of the Tanzania Ministry of Community Development, Women Affairs and Children demonstrated a highly professional level of understanding of the needs, and conditions in Tanzania and the precise nature of potential cooperation between UNCHS and the Government of Tanzania.
From 5-8 February 1997 the UNCHS (Habitat) Community Development Coordinator, Robert Kapopo, visited Uganda to accomplish the recruitment of the national consultant to write the country profile report. The mission was also to discuss and review TOR to reflect the role of CMP in the formulation process of the country profile and familiarisation on current CMP community projects.
The CTA went on a mission to Northern Iraq from 1997 March 26 to April 7. The CTA was assigned the duty to advise about community component to the disaster unit of UNCHS in Northern Iraq.
A high level policy and governing body "Commission for Human Settlements" met at UNCHS (Habitat) headquarter, Nairobi from 28 April to 7 May, 1997 to review annual progress of Habitat programmes and also review the administrative practices of top UNCHS (Habitat) management. For CMP Uganda, this Commission meeting was attended by the NPC Mr Osinde Owor and the CTA, Dr Phil Bartle. During the meeting, a number of dignitaries from various countries implementing CDP like Ecuador, Ghana, Costa Rica was met and mutual discussions took place. Areas of exchange of experiences and ideas were explored and agreed upon.
The Director for Community Development who is the chairman of EARF and Mr Osinde Owor, NPC attended the Sub-Regional Task Force Planning meeting in Arusha, Tanzania. The meeting took place from 18-24 May 1997. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain and review EAC documents; hold consultations with the EAC secretariat officials for more information on the cooperation and to introduce the East African sub-regional cooperation in addressing human settlements issues through the Community Development Programme and to prepare a report, on the basis of information collected through the review of documents and consultation with the EAC secretariat. Also, the EARF has been accepted as an item for East African Cooperation in Arusha.
Mr Gert L?deking, CMP Coordinator visited CMP Uganda. This was a backstopping mission to review the progress of the project and to initiate the research and documentation component of the project.
The Uganda CMP web site (Home Page) has established copies of its training material and published reports on the site, and has hot links to its sister regional programme in Central America, CERCA, and to the new Web site of our sister project in Ghana.
The following issues were raised:
An institutional framework: need for true decentralization was widely recognised. In practice, true decentralization is rare. Even where policies for enablement and empowerment have been put in place, lack of awareness among target beneficiaries is delaying effective participation. It was noticed that in Uganda, favourable policies and legal instruments have been developed but extensive civic education is necessary for people to demand their rights. In Zambia, decentralization does not include surrender of financial resources by Central Government to communities.
Need for systematic collection and dissemination of information? Need for capacity building and training for a variety of stakeholders? central government, local government, CBOs.
Need for meaningful participation of vulnerable groups in human settlements development like women, children, youth, the disabled? Persistent dependence syndrome, as legacy of past government policy, partly attributes to poverty.
There were some postings of drivers from one district to another, Hannington Namanya formerly working with Kampala office was posted to Mubende office, David Bagenda of Mpigi was posted to head office, Badru Lubega of head office was posted to Mpigi office and George Turyagyenda of head office was posted to Kampala office.
Mr Osinde Owor, coordinator of the UNICEF CCA Programme, attended a number of Unicef meetings geared toward establishing information management system to be used by all programmes in the nation.
|Recommendations||Next, Back or Top|
The communities need to marshal all efforts to accomplish projects that are funded and those that have not got support from outside.
The communities need to diversify their needs, e.g., from primary schools to health units and roads like in Kisekende in Mubende District.
The communities need to ensure that 65% of the revenue funds remaining at the sub-county level is used for development activities like the CMP.
There is a need to improve on accountability using CMP guidelines?
|Appendices||Next, Back or Top|
Community Meeting; Deciding Priorities
Disclaimer:The above document expresses the views of the authors only, and is not necessarily the official executive policy of the UN, SCN, CDS, any NGO or any ministry that implements community development projects.