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An Introductory Course in Sociology

by Phil Bartle, PhD

Intended Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate that the sociological perspective is a valid approach to studying, understanding, explaining, and predicting patterns of human behaviour, social structure and organisation.
  2. Define the major concepts of sociology and use them to examine human behaviour and the social world.
  3. Identify and describe the major sociological perspectives of functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interactionism.
  4. Apply the major sociological perspectives to examine research, social interaction, culture, inequalities, social institutions, and social change.  Other perspectives will be introduced.
  5. Identify the historical roots and the current directions of sociology.
  6. Describe the influences of social structure and organisation on their lives, the times in which they live, and their society.

Required Materials

Bartle, P. The Sociology of Communities, An Introduction. 2005. Victoria: Camosun Imaging.

Web references listed below by lesson.

www.cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/...  >> Training Modules >> Sociology.

Any good quality new or used introductory sociology text book.


Henslin, James M., Dan Glenday, Ann Duffy and Norene Pupo. 2004. Sociology: A Down–to–Earth Approach, Third Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson. Or

Schaefer, Richard T and Edith Smith. 2005 Sociology; Canadian Edition. Toronto. McGraw-Hill. Or

Kendall, D., JL Murray and Rick Linden. 2004. Sociology in Our Times. Toronto. Thomson Nelson. Or

Tepperman, L., and J. Curtis. 2004. Sociology, A Canadian Perspective. Don Mills, Oxford, Or

Students may buy any introductory sociology textbook printed in the last two decades, and are advised to try St Vincent de Paul, Value Village, Salvation Army or yard sales.

Recommended Materials

Web references as listed below by topic.

Method of Instruction

This course can be studied through the internet.  Read the material.  Ask questions by email.  Answer the examination questions regularly.  Work at your own pace: take two months or ten years.

Use this course of studies to become familiar with the discipline, or to supplement a course that you are studying formally.  There is no charge for this course.

In the schedule below, each substantive topic is presented in Bold Font.  Required reading is immediately after in normal font.  Recommended reading follows in smaller font.  Also See Web References for the course, and Web References for the Book.

Method.  Inform the instructor that you are beginning the course.  Answer the examination questions in turn, after doing the readings.  Send questions to the instructor by email.  For each question you answer, there are only two grades, pass and fail.  You must pass each question before going on to the next one.  On passing all the questions, you can apply for a certificate for the course.  This course is not approved by any authority or institution.


What is Sociology?  What is Society?  Perspectives.  Finding Out.

Lesson One

Email Registration.
Bartle, Before you write any answers; Writing Errors
Bartle, Glossary

Recommended for Introductions:
Internet Discussion, What Can I get Out of This course?

Lesson Two
The Sociological Perspective

Bartle, Chapter One; What is Society?
Bartle, Sociological Perspective;
Bartle, Everyday Things

Recommended for The Sociological Perspective
Henslin, Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective;
Schaefer, Chapter 1; Understanding Sociology
Tepperman, Chapter 1: What is Society?
Bartle, Poker Game;
Bartle, Key Words, Anthropomorphise;
Bartle, Key Words, Applied Sociology;
Bartle, Key Words, Clinical Sociology;
The Dead Sociologists Society: Meander through this comprehensive site;
Trinity University, Texas; A Tour Through Sociological Cyber Space;
The Free Dictionary: Sociology;
Connect Online, Top 20 Sociology;
Dead Sociologists Society: Social Structure.
The Canadian Encyclopaedia, Sociology.
Henslin; Web Companion to Text Book.
John Macionis, The Sociology Page.

A:    What does the word "anthropomorphise" mean?  What is its relationship to understanding the nature of society.  Provide an example from your own experience.

K:    What value does sociology provide in your current or future profession?  to you? to your community or society?

Lesson Three
Three Classical Perspectives;  Conflict, Functional and Symbolic Interaction

Contributions of Marx, Weber and Durkheim
Bartle, Chapter Three; The Eye of the Beholder.

Recommended for Three Classical Perspectives
Henslin, Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective;
Schaefer, Chapter 1;  Understanding Sociology
Tepperman, Chapter 1
Dead Sociologists Society: Sociological Perspectives, Marx, Weber, Durkheim
Bartle, Precursor of the Conflict Perspective: Karl Marx;
Bartle, Precursor of the Structural Functional Perspective: Emile Durkheim;
Bartle, Precursor of the Symbolic Interaction Perspective: Max Weber;
Bartle, Durkheim and Weber Marx and Weber;
Bartle, Key Words, Conflict;
Bartle, Key Words, Functionalism;
Itgo; Murray State University, Joe Dunman, The Durkheim Archives.

2:     Start with an example (event or situation) in your own life. Describe it briefly.  Choose any two of the three classical perspectives, conflict, functional, or symbolic interaction, and explain how a sociologist might write in different ways about the event or situation.

3:     Start with an example (event or situation) in your own life. Describe it briefly.  Choose any two of the three "fathers of sociology," Marx, Weber or Durkheim, and explain how they might write in different ways about the event or situation.

Lesson Four
Epistemology and Social Research
How do you know? How do we find out?

Bartle, Chapter Fifteen; Search and Research
Mobius: It is not always what you expect; do not assume.
Bartle, Knowing ;
Bartle, Kinds of Research Methods.

Recommended for Epistemology and Research:
Henslin, Chapter 2. What Do Sociologists Do?
Schaefer, Chapter 2; Sociological Research
Tepperman, Chapter 23: Research Methods
Bartle, Participant Observation, Unobtrusive Measures;
Bartle, Preliminary Family and Community Data;
Bartle, Prediction and Cause
Bartle, Social Organization of Family or Community;
Bartle, Using the Six Dimensions in Family Research;
Bartle, Key Words, Causal;
Bartle, Community Research;
Trinity, Texas, Guide to Writing a Research Paper;
Dead Sociologists Society: Sociological Research;
The Web Centre for Social Research Methods;
CFMC: Validity.

4:     Identify some of the difficulties associated with empiricism.  Use an example from your own life experience, and show what wrong conclusions might be made by a sociologist observing it, and why they might happen.  How would a sociologist try to correct for or avoid such mistakes?

5:     Bartle adds an eighth research approach to the seven described by Henslin.  Under what conditions would you use that approach, and in what other conditions would you avoid it?  Why?  (Use an example from your own life).

Lesson Five

Bartle, Chapter Two: Re Viewing Culture
Bartle, Culture; Different Meanings;
Bartle, So You Want to Preserve Your Culture

Recommended for Culture:
Henslin, Chapter 3. Culture
Schaefer, Chapter 3; Culture
Tepperman, Chapter 2: Culture and Culture Change
Bartle, Is Culture Inside Us or Outside Us?
Bartle, Culture, Symbols and Dimensions
Bartle, Superorganic; Another View of Culture;
Bartle, Key Words, Culture;
Bartle, Culture and Social Animation;
Bartle, Key Words, Aesthetics;
Horace Miner, Body Ritual Among The Nacirema;
UPENN: Cultural Hegemony;
Trinity University, Texas; A Tour Through Sociological Cyber Space;
Dead Sociologists Society: Culture;
Internet Discussion, Superorganic;
Internet Discussion, Dimensions;
Internet Discussion, Technology.

6    What major differences distinguish mainstream Canadian culture from that of the Nacirema?

7    Is culture inside or outside us?

Lesson Seven
Six Dimensions of Culture

Bartle; Chapter Five: The Six Dimensions.

Recommended for Six Dimensions
Bartle, Cultural Dimensions,
Bartle, Dimensions, Six Dimensions; Culture, Symbols and Dimensions.

8       Identify the six cultural dimensions.  Using them, explain how Marx and Weber differed in identifying causes of social change.

9     Distinguish between  the word "culture" as used in everyday life, and "culture" as we use the word in the social sciences?  Provide examples from your own personal life.  Why do we use the metaphor of a strange fish when describing culture?

Lesson Six
Socialisation, Social Construction of Reality

Bartle, Chapter Four; Becoming Human
Bartle, Sapir and Whorf;

Recommended for Socialization:
Henslin Chapter 4. Socialisation;
Schaefer, Chapter 4; Socialization
Tepperman, Chapter 3: Socialization;
Bartle, Socialization, Chickens and Eggs;
Bartle, Key Words, Enculturation;
Dead Sociologists Society, Socialization;, Sexuality;
Henslin, Homosexuality;
Dead Sociologists Society: Education;
UMSL: Socialization;
Canadian Government, Ghana to Canada;
Internet Discussion, Socialization;
Internet Discussion, Resocialisation.

10:    Explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.  How do we use colours to illustrate it?

J:    How does the process of socialization differ from the point of view of effects on an individual or the point of view of effects on society?

Lesson Seven
Social Structure and Social Interaction

Recommended for Social Structure and Interaction
Tepperman, Chapter 4: Roles and Identities
Schaefer, Chapter 5; Social Interaction
Goffman: The Presentation of Self:;
Bartle, Key Words, Institutional Dimension;
Bartle, Key Words, Interactional Dimension;
Bartle, Key Words, Community;
Dead Sociologists Society:  Cooley, Cooley W, Mead;  Social Structure.
Miner: Nacirema;
The Home Port Collective: Scott S Blake; Cultural Power and Discursive Effects;
Adam Barnhart; Goffman;
University of Chicago: Goffman;
University of Chicago: Berger;

Q:   TBA

K:    TBA


Inequality: Class. Stratification. Age, Race, Sex

Lesson Eight
Social Inequality. Class. Stratification

Bartle. Chapter Eight; not Equal

Recommended for Social Inequality:
Henslin Chapter 6: Social Inequality

Schafeer, Chapter 8; Stratification and Social Mobility
Tepperman, Chapter 14: Class, Status, Inequality
Dead Sociologists Society, Social Stratification;
Bartle, Factors of Poverty, the Big Five;
Bartle, Inequality;
Bartle, Marx and Weber on class;
Bartle, Mosaic or Melting Pot?
Internet Discussion, Inequality.

A:     Marx used one element to distinguish between two social classes (others being unimportant) while sociologists later used three elements or criteria to separate various (more than two) classes.  What were the two classes emphasised by Marx, and what were the elements of inequality that later writers described?  Where would you  personally fit in either of those ways of describing social class?

2:     Explain how a sociology class and a college are institutions for creating and increasing social inequality.  Where would you, as an individual, fit into this explanation?

Lesson Nine
Global Inequality

Recommended for Global Inequality:

Schafeer, Chapter 9; inequality Word Wide
Bartle, Key Words, Factors of Poverty;
Dead Sociologists Society: Global Stratification;
Global Policy Reform: Albert;
Fordham; Wallerstein;
University of Chicago: Wallerstein;
Internet Discussion, External Aid.

3:   TBA

4:   TBA

Lesson Ten
Gender Inequality

Bartle. Chapter Eight; not Equal

Recommended for Gender Inequality:
Henslin Chapter 7: Inequalities of Gender;
Scheafer, Chapter 11; Stratification by Gender;
Tepperman, Chapter 15: Gender Relations;
Bartle, Gender Strategies,
Bartle, Female Genital Mutilation;
Bartle, Key Words, Gender;
Bartle, Gender and Language
Bartle, Key Words, Feminism;
Dead Sociologists Society; Jane Addams;  Harriet Martineau; , Gender Stratification;
University of Chicago, Dorothy Smith; The Everyday World As Problematic;
Arizona State University, Marie Campbell, Dorothy Smith;
Internet Discussion, Gender;
Internet Discussion, Feminism.

5:      Distinguish between gender and sex.  Why do sociologists make that distinction? Take an example from your own observations to demonstrate how some one has incorrectly identified a gender difference as a sex difference. How would you rectify the error?

6:      Identify some of the economic and political costs of gender discrimination.. Illustrate from personal observations.

Lesson Eleven
Race Inequality

Bartle. Chapter Eight; not Equal

Recommended for Race Stratification:
Henslin Chapter 8: Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity
Schaefer, Chapter 10; Racial and Ethnic Inequality
Tepperman, Chapter 16: Ethnicity and Race Relations
Dead Sociologists Society, Gender Stratification, duBois, Racial and Ethnic Stratification;
Bartle, Age, Race and Sex;
Bartle, Home vs Work Conflict;
Bartle, Mosaic or Melting Pot?
Bartle, Racial Categories and Biology;
Bartle, Inequality;
Martin Jacques, The Global Hierarchy of Race.
Internet Discussion, Race

7:      We inherit our physical characteristics through genes from our biological parents.  Why, then, is there a problem with using biology to determine racial categories?  Illustrate your answer with an example from your personal experience.

8:      In describing Canadian society, distinguish between a mosaic and a vertical mosaic?   Describe two events or circumstances in your own life which illustrates the difference.

Lesson Twelve
Age Inequality

Bartle. Chapter Eight; not Equal

Recommended for Age Stratification:
Henslin Chapter 9: Inequalities of Age
Schaefer, Chapter 12;  Stratification by Age
Bartle, Age, Race and Sex
Dead Sociologists Society: Age Stratification;
Canadian Association for Retired Persons: http://www.fifty-plus.net/;
American Association of Retired Persons: http://www.aarp.org/.

9:     What is a "rite of passage?"  How and why have these changed as society changed?  Describe such a rite you have undergone, and how it might have been conducted in an earlier technological phase of society?

10:     Explain "Dependency Ratio."  Where does it fit on an age pyramid?  How does age related dependency affect the social attitudes held about young and old people?


Organizations and Institutions. Bureaucracy. Family. Elements of Strength

Lesson Thirteen
Bureaucracy, Organization, Organizing
Formal Organizations

Bartle, Chapter Seven; Organization and Strength
Bartle, The Institutional Dimension;
Bartle, Organization
Bartle, Sixteen Elements of Organizational Strength;

Recommended for Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations:
Henslin, Chapter 10: Bureaucracy and Formal Organisations
Schaefer, Chapter 6; Groups and Organizations
Dead Sociologists Society, Weber on Bureaucracy; , Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations. : Weber, : Marx, Alienation: : Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations.

J:    Identify a bureaucracy with which you have had some experience.  Examine each of Weber's five characteristics, and how they might apply to the organization you chose.  How do each contribute, or not contribute, to its strength.  Identify a sixth element which Weber may have missed, and why you would include it.

Q:    Identify an organization with which you have had some experience.  List each of Bartle's sixteen elements of strength.  Choose six.  How do each contribute, or not contribute, to its strength.

Lesson Fourteen
Economy, The Economic Dimension, Corporations

Bartle; Chapter Five: The Six Dimensions.

Bartle: The Economic dimension.

Recommended for Economy:
Henslin, Chapter 11: The Economy, Money and Work
Schaefer, Chapter 17; The Economy and Work
Tepperman, Chapter 9: Work and the Economy
Bartle, So What About Corporations
Dead Sociologists Society, Economic Sociology. Economy
Bartle, Economic Dimension of Community;
Bartle, Factors of Poverty; The Big Five;
Bartle, Key Words, Economy;

K:    Corporations are required to make a profit in order to survive and grow.  What are the consequences of this on the nature of society? Identify a corporation with which you have had some personal experience.  To what extent does it concentrate on its major goal, making a profit? Analyse how this affects its contribution to society.

Q♦:    Describe an economic transaction, where wealth has been distributed, without using market exchange principles, in your own life, in the last 48 hours. Why is this part of the economic dimension yet commonly not seen as part of the economy?

Lesson Fifteen
Politics, The Political Dimension. Power

Bartle; Chapter Five: The Six Dimensions.

Bartle. The Political Dimension.

Recommended for Politics:
Henslin, Chapter 12: Politics, Power and Authority
Schaefer, Chapter 16; Government
Tepperman, Chapter 12: Politics and Political Movements
Bartle, Family Politics.
Bartle, Political Dimension of Community;
Bartle, Key Words, Political;
Bartle, The Power of Suns;
Dead Sociologists Society: Politics.

A♦:    Choose the economic dimension, the Worldview dimension or the political dimension of society.  How does it differ from the everyday notion of economics, religion or politics?  Indicate an event or condition in your own life which illustrates this difference.  How would that incident or condition need to change if it were to be part of the everyday (orthodox) notion of economics, religion or politics?

J♠:    Describe a political transaction, where power has been exercised, without using national plitical institutions, in your own life, in the last 48 hours. Why is this part of the political dimension yet commonly not seen as part of politics?

Lesson Sixteen
Family, Kinship, Marriage

Bartle, Chapter Nine, Family.
Bartle: The Incest Taboo

Recommended for Family and Kinship:
Henslin Chapter 13, The Family; Initiation into Society
Schaefer, Chapter 13; The Family and Intimate Relationships
Tepperman, Chapter 7: Families
Dead Sociologists Society: Family;
Bartle, Seven Biases in Family Literature;
Bartle, Love and Marriage;
Bartle, Family Politics;
Bartle: Families in First Nations, Visible Minorities and Immigrants;
Bartle, Home vs Work Conflict;
Bartle, Mosaic or Melting Pot;
Trinity, Texas: Marriage and Family Processes;
Texas; Singlehood and Alternative Family Forms.
Internet Discussion: Nuclear Family;
Internet Discussion, The word "family";
Internet Discussion, Divorce.

2♦:    Explain how the search for "what is" not for "what should be" affects our notion of a conjugal nuclear family and its role in society.  Use an example from your own experience.

How are families changing today?  Compare them with the past fifty years, and what is expected over the next fifty years.  Identify a family in which you consider, or once considered, yourself a part.  How does it fit into that change you have just described?

Q♠:    Identify the seven biases in family literature. How should sociology study the family in contrast with these?

Lesson Seventeen
More on Family, Kinship, Marriage. Matriliny. Ethnicity.

Bartle, Akan Case Study

Recommended for Akan Kinship:
Bartle: Cross Cousin Marriage;
Bartle, Covert Gynocracy

4♦:    Explain how Bartle's description of the Akan matrilineage throws doubt on the notion of the nuclear conjugal family being a cultural universal.

5♦:    Where there is lineage exogamy, how does this permit some kinds of cousin marriage while treating others as equal to incest?

Lesson Eighteen

Bartle, Chapter Four; Becoming Human.
Bartle, Chapter Nine It Takes a Village.
Bartle, Education;
Bartle: Social Promotion; Failing Grades, Passing Students;

Recommended for Education:
Henslin Chapter 14: Education and Religion
Schaefer, Chapter 15; Education
Tepperman, Chapter 8: Education
Dead Sociologists Society, Sociology of Education;
Electronic Journal of Sociology, Commodifiction of Education, Peter Roberts;
Electronic Journal of Sociology, Commodifiction of Education, Beckett.

6♦:    What reasons can you give for giving a child a pass (promotion) into a higher level even when that child has not completed the grade requirements? What reasons against?  Can you use the same reasoning to give a university level student a higher grade than earned by the course requirements? Illustrate with personal experiences.

7:    What is a "hidden curriculum" in schools?  Why is it associated with one of the three classical perspectives?  Identify two examples, including at least one not in the text book, referring to your own experience.

Lesson Nineteen

Bartle; Chapter Five: Worldview, Belief.
Bartle, Chapter Ten, Religion.
Bartle, Notes on Religion.
Bartle, Values Aesthetics Dimension;
Bartle, Worldview Dimension;

Recommended for Religion:
Henslin Chapter 14: Education and Religion
Schaefer, Chapter 14; Religion
Tepperman, Chapter 11: Religion
Bartle, Key Words, Belief;
Bartle, Key Words, Worldview;
Dead Sociologists Society, Sociology of Religion; : Durkheim;: Weber;
Moriyuki Abukuma, Japan; Weber's Sociology of Religion;
Itgo: Durkheim: Religion;
Isizoh; African Traditional Religion;
Land Reform: Liberation Theology;
Socinian: Liberation Theology;
Earthlink: Liberation Theology;
University of Chicago: Geertz.

8♦:    How does the beliefs dimension of society differ from a religion?  Demonstrate how this difference would apply in your own experience.

9♦:    What kinds of transformations in leadership, and in institutions for succession when leaders die, are expected in cults, but expected to change when a cult becomes a religion?

Lesson Twenty
Comparative Religion, Bartle's "Three Souls"

Bartle, The Spirit in Us and illustrated essays in the series.

Recommended For Akan Religion
Bartle, Slide Presentation;
Bartle, Three Souls:

10♦:    Explain what is meant by "being possessed."  Using Bartle's material, show how this can describe both human and inanimate objects.  Describe some socio-cultural functions of possession.

When missionaries went to Africa to convert people to Christianity, they met with syncretism.  Using the Akan material of Bartle, show how this related to historical beliefs and practices, and to the social process stimulated by the missionaries' activities.



Variation, Deviation. Change

Lesson Twenty One
Deviance and Social Control

Bartle; Chapter Eleven: Deviates and Control;
Bartle, Deviance.

Recommended for Deviance and Social Control:
Henslin Chapter 16: Social Deviance and Social Control
Schaefer, Chapter 7;  Deviance and Social Control
Tepperman, Chapter 6: Deviance
Dead Sociologists Society, Crime and Deviance;
Restorative Justice: Circles; Justice Reform; Turtle Island.
Internet Discussion, Deviance.

K♦:    What is the difference between a deviant and a criminal?  Who determines the boundary?  What are the social consequences of making that distinction? Illustrate with personal experiences or current events.

A♠:    What is a social norm? Explain different forms. How do these affect you in your daily life?  How does your personal network of friends deal with minor transgressions?

Lesson Twenty Two
Crime, Justice and Restorative Justice

Bartle, Criminal Sentence Purposes;
Bartle, Restorative Justice;

Recommended for Crime and Justice:
Bartle, Law as a Tool of Oppression;
Henslin Chapter 16: Social Deviance and Social Control
Internet Discussion, Law.

2♠:    Explain how sociologists cast doubt on official crime statistics?

3♠:    Explain restorative justice and community justice fora. How and where would you apply these in your own society?

Lesson Twenty Three
Population and Demography

Bartle Chapter Twelve: More People; More Strangers
Bartle. Demography, Age Pyramids

Recommended for Population:
Henslin Chapter 17: Population, Urbanisation and the Environment
Schaefer, Chapter 20; Population, the Environment and Technology
Tepperman, Chapter 18: Population and society
Dead Sociologists Society, Population and Urbanization;
Statistics Canada.

4♠:    Populations in least developed countries have shallow sloped age pyramids, while those in wealthy countries have narrow age pyramids. Explain the causes and consequences of those differences.

5♠:    Describe two typical age pyramid patterns, what are the characteristics of the countries where they are found? How does that relate to social organization?

Lesson Twenty Four

Bartle Chapter Twelve: More People; More Strangers
Bartle, Cities and Urbanization

Recommended for Urbanization:
Henslin Chapter 17: Population, Urbanisation and the Environment
Schaefer, Chapter 19; Communities and Urbanization
Tepperman, Chapter 19: Cities and Urbanization
Dead Sociologists Society, Population and Urbanization.

6♠:    From the time of Mohenjo Daro on the Indus River, up to today, cities needed to have farms nearby. Explain the sociological interpretation of this. How does this relate to the social organization of Victoria?  How does it affect you?

7♠:    Explain how gemeinschaft and gesellschaft relate to degree of urbanism, and what human groups might do to counter the process. Illustrate with personal examples.

Lesson Twenty Five
Social Change

Bartle, Chapter Twelve; More People; More Strangers;
Bartle, Social Change, Social Evolution, Constructed Communities, Neo Gemeinschaft

Recommended for Social Change:
Henslin Chapter 18: Social Movements and Social Change
Schaefer, Chapter 21; Social Change
Bartle: Karl Marx; Max Weber; Marx and Weber;
Dead Sociologists Society, Social Change; Marx; Weber;
Bartle, Key Words, Acculturation;
Bartle, Key Words, Community Empowerment;
ICAAP: Social Change Site;
University of Chicago: Revolution.
Canadian Government, Ghana to Canada.

8♠:    Discuss culture lag, giving examples.  Refer to the six dimensions. Illustrate with your own life experience.  How will you be affected by social change thirty years from now?

9♠:    Compare the approaches of Marx and Weber to social change related to nineteenth century capitalism and the industrial revolution.  Relate these issues to social change today, and your own life.

10♠:    Identify three sociological principles or concepts that you have learned in this course.  Show how your own perspective has been modified, from what to what, for each of them.

Lesson Twenty Six
Review of the Course


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