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العربية  / د
العربية  / ض
Bahasa Indonesia
Ewe /   d
Ewe /   ɖƉ
Ewe /   dz
Filipino / Tagalog
हिन्दी /   ड
हिन्दी /   ढ
हिन्दी /   द
हिन्दी /   ध
日本語 /   だ
日本語 /   づ
日本語 /   で
日本語 /   ど
بهاس ملايو / Bahasa Melayu
Af Soomaali
Srpski /   d
Srpski /   dž
Srpski /   đ
ไทย /   ด
Tiếng Việt
اردو /   ـڈ
اردو /   ـﺪ
اردو /   ـض


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Key words that begin with the letter D

by Phil Bartle



Decentralization takes some power from the centre and puts it into the surrounding locations.

It is not the same as democratization (it can be the decentralizing of tyranny) but can assist in democratization.

 Català descentralització,    Deutsch: Dezentralisierung,    Ελληνικά: αποκεντρωση,    English: decentralization,    Español: descentralización,    Français: décentralisation,    हिन्दी (Hindi): विकेन्द्रीकरण,    Italiano: decentramento,    Português: descentralização,    Srpski: decentralizacija,    Türkçe: merkezi yönetim,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 下放权力



A methodology of choosing to work with different communities based on the different amounts they each are willing to sacrifice.

DRA is based upon the idea that communities differ in the amount of resources they are willing to sacrifice in order to invest in their own development.



The word, "democracy," comes from ancient classical languages, where "demo" means the people (as in demography) and "cracy" means power (as in bureaucracy or aristocracy).

The word democracy, then, means power to the people. Ironically, ancient Greece was not very democratic in that the economy was based upon the labour of slaves.

There are different kinds of democracy: eg representational democracy where the people elect representatives (eg Members of Parliament) to make decisions for them, and participatory democracy where the people are involved in making decisions.

As a mobilizer, you are urged to promote democracy, ie in the community project, but you are not obligated to imitate the British parliamentary system. Look for what is socially appropriate.

Akan: kabi-ma-me-nkabi,    : الديمقراطية,    Bahasa Indonesia: demokrasi,    Català democràcia,    Deutsch: demokratie,    Ελληνικά: Δημοκρατία,    English: democracy,    Español: democracia,    Filipino/Tagalog: demokrasya,    Français: démocratie,    Galego: democracia,    हिन्दी : लोकतन्त्र,    Italiano: democrazia,    日本語: 民主主義,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 민주주의,    Malay: demokrasi,    Nederlands: democratie,    Português: democracia,    Română: democratie,    Pyccкий: демократия,    Srpski: demokratija,    Tiên Việt: dân chủ,    Türkçe: demokrasi,    ردو (Urdu): جمہوریت,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 民主



A process of social change towards increased political decision making power for all people.

العربيّة : إقامة الديمقراطيّة ,    Català: democratització,    Deutsch: Demokratisierung,    Ελληνικά: εκδημοκρατισμοσ,    English: Democratization,    Español: democratización,    Français: démocratisation,    हिन्दी : लोकतन्त्रीकरण,    Italiano: democratizzazione,    日本語: 民主化,    Português: democratização,    Română: democratizare,    Srpski: demokratizacija,    Türkçe: demokratikleşme,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 民主化



The dependency syndrome is an attitude and belief that a group can not solve its own problems without outside help.

It is a weakness that is made worse by charity. See: The Dependency Syndrome.

 العربيّة (Arabic): التبعي,    Bahasa Indonesia: ketergantungan, dependensi,    Català: dependència,    Deutsch: Abhängigkeit,    Ελληνικά: Εξάρτησης,    English: dependency syndrome,    Español: síndrome de dependencia,    Euskera: mendekotasuna,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagtatangkilik,    Français: syndrome de dépendance,    Galego: dependencia,    Italiano: dipendenza,    日本語: 依存,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 의존(증후군),    Malay: kebergantungan,    Nederlands: afhankelijkheid,    Português: dependencia,    Română: dependenta,    Pyccкий: Зависимость,    Somali: ku tiirsanaanta,    Srpski: zavisnost,    Tiên Việt: phụ thuộc,    Türkçe: bağımlılık,    ردو (Urdu): محتاجی کی لت,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 依赖性



Many people assume that development means quantitative growth, whereas its main characteristic is qualitative change.

To develop is to grow, and to grow means more than to get bigger; it also means to become more complex and stronger.

When a community develops, it gets stronger and more complex.

It undergoes social change.

See "Culture." An economist may see development as only an increase in wealth or income (absolute or per capita); and an engineer may see development as a greater control over energy, or more sophisticated and powerful tools.

To a mobilizer, however, those are only two of the six cultural dimensions of a community that change. Development means social change in all six cultural dimensions: technological, economic, political, interactive, ideological and world view.

See Community Development.

Community development means growing in complexity in all six dimensions of culture. It differs from community empowerment which means growing stronger. Although the two are different by definition, they are intricately linked to each other.

 বাংলা : উন্নয়ন,    Bahasa Indonesia: perkembangan,    Català: desenvolupament,    Deutsch: Entwicklung,    Ελληνικά: αναπτυξη,    English: development,    Español: desarrollo,    Euskera: garapena,    Filipino/Tagalog: kalinangan,    Français: développement,    Galego: desenvolvemento,    Italiano: sviluppo,    日本語: 発展,    Malay: pembangunan,    Português: desenvolvimento,    Română: dezvoltare,    Somali: horumarka,    Srpski: razvoj,    Tiên Việt: sự phát triển,    Türkçe: gelişim,    Yoruba: Idagbasoke,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 发展



The Development Committee is the Executive, Project Committee or CIC (Community Implementing Committee) of the community, chosen by the community as a whole, responsible for carrying out the wishes of the whole community.

It is the product of your organizing efforts; see "Organize." and Community Implementation Committee.

 Català: comissió de desenvolupament,    Deutsch: Entwicklungskomitee,    Ελληνικά: αναπτυξη,    English: development committee,    Español: comité de desarrollo,    Français: comité de développement,    Italiano: comitato per lo sviluppo,    Português: comissão de desenvolvimento,    Srpski: razvojni komitet,    Türkçe: gelişim komitesi,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 发展委员会



A dialogue is communication which is two-way. (The syllable "di" means "two").

It is contrasted with the word "monologue" ("mono" meaning "one") which is one-way communication.

A speech is a monologue (one-way); so is a lecture, sermon or a training presentation.

In contrast, training should be participatory, where the participants (trainees) engage in two-way communication with the trainer.

Communication with a community should be two-way, but often in the past has been one-way (dictation to the community, nothing heard from the community).

A mobilizer should work towards a community being heard, and for communication (with authorities, with assistance organizations) to be two-way.

 Català: diàleg,    Deutsch: Dialog,    Ελληνικά: διαλογοσ,    English: dialogue,    Español: diálogo,    Français: dialogue,    Italiano: dialogo,    Português: diálogo,    Srpski: dijalog,    Türkçe: diyalog,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 对话



Dimensions of Culture

Each dimension is composed of socio-cultural systems (eg the economic system) which combine to make a super-organic system.

The six dimensions are: Technical,   Economic,   Political,   Institutional,   Value and   Conceptual.

A community is a cultural entity, so the dimensions also apply to communities. See: Dimensions.

 বাংলা : সংস্কৃতির মাত্রা,    Bahasa Indonesia: dimensi kebudayaan,    Català: dimensions culturals,    Deutsch: kulturdimensionen,    Ελληνικά: διαστασεισ τησ κουλτουρασ,    English: dimensions of culture,    Español: dimensiones de la cultura,    Euskera: kulturaren dimentsioak,    Ewe: awon eka asa,    Filipino/Tagalog: dimensyon ng kultura,    Français: dimensions de culture,    Galego: dimensións da cultura,    Italiano: dimensioni della cultura,    日本語: 文化の側面,    Malay: dimensi budaya,    Português: dimensões da cultura,    Română: dimensiunile culturii,    Somali: geybaha,    Srpski: dimenzije kulture,    Tiên Việt: những yếu tố văn hoá,    Türkçe: kültürün boyutlari,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 文化层面



These are costs which your business pays to employees who work to make the products or services you sell.

 Català: costs directes de treball,    Deutsch: direkte arbeitskosten,    Ελληνικά: αμεσεσ δαπανεσ εργασιεσ,    English: direct labour costs,    Español: costes directos del trabajo,    Français: coûts de la main-d'oeuvre directs,    Italiano: costi diretti del lavoro,    Português: custos de trabalho,    Srpski: direktni materijalni troškovi,    Türkçe: doğrudan işçi maliyeti,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 直接劳工成本,



This is what your enterprise pays for the raw materials to make the products or services you sell.

 Català: costs directes de material,    Deutsch: Direkte Materialkosten,    Ελληνικά: αμεσα κοστη υλικων,    English: direct material costs,    Español: costes directos de material,    Français: coûts de matériel direct,    Italiano: costi materiali diretti,    Português: custos de material,    Türkçe: doğrudan materyal maliyeti,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 直接材料成本,



Illness is one of the five major factors of poverty.

It is cheaper, more humane, and more productive for a society or community to prevent than to cure disease and to direct limited resources towards the treatment of a few common diseases affecting the majority of the population, rather than towards sophisticated equipment and skills for the treatment of a few wealthy people (thus the reasons for WHO promoting and supporting the principles of primary health care).

Knowing this, you the mobilizer may challenge a community's first and lightly considered choice of a clinic, and perhaps let them see the logic and reasoning for first choosing effective water and sanitation systems to prevent water borne diseases.

 বাংলা : রোগ,    Bahasa Indonesia: penyakit,    Català: malaltia,    Deutsch: Krankheit,    Ελληνικά: ασθενεια,    English: disease,    Español: enfermedad,    Euskera: gaixotasuna,    Filipino/Tagalog: sakit,    Français: maladie,    Galego: enfermidade,    Italiano: malattia,    日本語: 病気,    Malay: penyakit,    Português: doença,    Română: boala,    Af Soomaali: cudur,    Srpski: bolest,    Tiên Việt: dịch bệnh,    Türkçe: hastalık,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 疾病



Lack of integrity and lack of honesty.

Dishonesty is one of the five major factors of poverty.

Comes with various labels, including corruption, embezzlement, extortion and theft. It happens when wealth intended for development of the whole society is illegally, and usually secretly, diverted to benefit individuals who betray their positions of trust as servants of society as a whole.

The resulting lack of trust contributes in turn to apathy and poverty. That is why you, as mobilizer and organizer of community organizations, promote transparency, integrity and honesty in the groups you organize.

বাংলা : অসততা,    Bahasa Indonesia: kebohongan,    Català: falsedat,    Deutsch: korruption, unehrlichkeit,    Ελληνικά: ατιμια,    English: corruption, dishonesty,    Español: falta de honradez,    Euskera: zintzotasun eza,    Ewe: iwa aije olooto,    Filipino/Tagalog: di-matapat,  Français: malhonnêteté,    Galego: deshonestidade,    Italiano: disonestà,    日本語: 不正直,  Kiswahili: rushwa,    Malay: ketidakjujuran,    Português: desonestidade,    Română: necinste,    Somali: daacaddarro,    Srpski: nepoštenje,    Tiên Việt: tính không thành thật,    Türkçe: sahtekarlık,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 不诚实



Of all the ways of learning (reading, listening, watching), the most effective is by "doing." See Training Methods.

Learning by doing can include doing directly such as doing a task in the field under supervision by a trainer, or doing indirectly such as participating in a role playing session or simulation game.

العربيّة: القيام بالأمر,    Bahasa Indonesia: bekerja, melakukan,    Deutsch: handeln,    Ελληνικά: Πράξη,    English: doing,    Español: practicar,    Ewe: worwor,    Filipino/Tagalog: paggawa,    Français: faire,    Galego: facer,    हिन्दी (Hindi): लोकतन्त्र,    日本語: 実技,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 행동,    Malay: membuat,    Italiano: fare,    Nederlands: doen,    Português: agir, fazendo,  Română: a practica,    Pyccкий: Действие   ,  Somali: sameynta,    Srpski: radjenje,    Tiên Việt: làm,    Türkçe: yapma,    اردو (Urdu): عمل,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 实践



The phrase "due to" means some amount of cash or other resource is expected to be paid in the future.

In a micro-enterprise scheme, you can speak of money owed to the bank as being "due to" the bank.

Do not use the phrase, "due to," when you mean, "because of."  See: Errors

 Català: a causa de,    Deutsch: geschuldet,    English: due to,    Ελληνικά: οφειλη,    Español: adeudar,    Français: dû à,    Italiano: da pagare,    Srpski: dužno,    Türkçe: -den dolayı,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 预期

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