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Key words that begin with the letter M

by Phil Bartle



In the social sciences, examinations of large scale patterns of society are called "macro."

It includes broad surveys of social change, and levels of analysis of nation states, large ethnic groups, social class and communities.

It is contrasted with "Micro level Analysis."

 Català: macroanàlisi,    Deutsch: makroebene-analyse,    Ελληνικά: μακρο-αναλυση,    English: macro level analysis,    Español: macroanálisis,    Français: le macro analyse égale,    Italiano: analist a macro livelli,    Português: análise de macro,    Română: analiza la nivel macro,    Pyccкий: Анализ на Макро-Уровне,    Srpski: analiza na makro nivou,    Türkçe: makro düzey analiz,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 宏观层次的分析



The word "management" refers to the functions of control, co-ordination, decision making, and problem solving of any governmental, not-for-profit, or commercial organization (agency, department, association), group, community, endeavour, or project.

It is a broad concept (like “governance”) and can be carried out in many different ways. The empowerment methodology in these web pages encourages “participatory management,” rather than autocractic or dictatorial management.

In both Spanish and French languages, the English word "management" translates as different words. In Spanish, there are three meanings: (1) dirección, (2) gestión y (3) administración. "Dirección:" to run, the power to give the  orders. "Gestionar:" to arrange, the ability to take the  necessary actions for something to be done. "Administración:" means the job done by a clerk.

Those are shades of meanings;  the three of them can all also be called "dirección." On this web site, we use the word "gestión"  because it is the closest to the methods the site proposes (participatory). Is more general, more "democratic,"  not so dictatorial as "dirección," but a more important job than a simple "administración."

 Català: gestió,    Deutsch: management,    Ελληνικά: διαχειριση,    English: management,    Español: gerencia,    Français: gestion,    Italiano: management,    Português: Gestão,    Română: management,    Srpski: rukovodjenje,    Türkçe: yönetim,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 管理



Information needed to make management decisions

(Differs from “information management.")



Management training differs from orthodox training (which emphasizes skill transfer) in that it is used as a method of mobilizing and organizing (or reorganizing) a management system.

While originally developed for senior managers of large commercial corporations, it is a useful method to add to social animation in strengthening or empowering low income communities and groups.

See "training for action," below. Also see "community management training,"above.

 العربيّة: تدريب الادارة,    Català: formació per a la gestió,    Deutsch: management training,    Ελληνικά: Εκπαίδευση Διαχείρισης,    English: management training,    Español: adiestramiento para la gestión,    Ewe: herher ler dorwormornu dzikporkpor,    ارسی: آموزش مدیریت,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagsasanay sa pamamahala,    Français: formation à la gestion,    Galego: formación para a xestión,    हिन्दी: प्रबंधन प्रशिक्षण,    Italiano: Allenamento manageriale,    日本語: 管理訓練,    Português: Adiestramiento para la gestión,    Română: instruire in management,    Pyccкий: Подготовка руководящих кадров,    Srpski: obuka rukovodioca,    తెలుగు: నిర్వాహకము శిక్షణ,    Türkçe: yönetim eğitimi,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 管理培训



Examinations of small scale social patterns.

 Català: microanàlisi,    Deutsch: mikroebene-analyse,    English: micro-level analysis,    Español: microanálisis,    Français: l'analyse microscopique égale,    Italiano: analisi a micro livelli,    Português: microanálise,    Română: analiza la nivel micro,    Pyccкий: Анализ на Микро-Уровне,    Srpski: analiza na mikro nivou,    Türkçe: mikro düzey analiz,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 微观层次的分析



A "mistake" is an error. We are tempted to get upset when we or the people who work for or with us make a mistake. But we must learn to expect mistakes and see it as a normal part of being human, and therefore not get upset. "To err is human," as the saying goes, only some divine higher power is perfect and does not make mistakes. See Anger, Criticize.

If you want the mistake to not be repeated, what you must do is to avoid criticizing, complaining or getting angry. Any of those will defeat your purpose. Remind the person that "You do not have to be bad to get better," meaning that anyone can improve, then make a positive and supportive recommendation for avoiding the mistake or otherwise improving.   See Sandwich.

A mistake is not a failure; relax. A failure is not a disaster; relax. A disaster is not the end of the world; relax. See: anger.

 Català: errades,    Deutsch: fehler,    Ελληνικά: λαθη,    English: mistake,    Español: errores,    Français: erreurs,    Italiano: errore,    Português: Erros de escrita,    Română: greșeli,    Srpski: greške,    Türkçe: hatalar,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 错误  



The Mobilization Cycle

The mobilization cycle is a set of interventions by a mobilizer aimed at stimulating a community to engage in self-activities leading to increased self reliance.

It is called "cycle" in that the whole set of activities (which are in a logical and functional order) are repeated as long as necessary. See Mobilization Cycle and Mobilization Cycle Illustrations.

 Català: cicle de mobilització,    Deutsch: mobilisierungs-kreislauf,    Ελληνικά: κυκλοσ κινητοποιησησ,    English: mobilization cycle,    Español: ciclo de movilización,    Français: cycle de mobilisation,    Italiano: ciclo di mobilitazione,    Português: ciclo de mobilização,    Română: ciclu de mobilizare,    Srpski: ciklus mobilizacije,    Türkçe: mobilizasyon döngüsü,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 一个动员工作周期



To mobilize is to produce action in a group or community.

Stimulation. Not exactly the same as organize, because action has to take place (people become mobile, moving) before it can be called mobilization.

Similar to social animation, except animation includes both the mobilizing and the organizing. See "Action."

বাংলা : সমবেতন,    Bahasa Indonesia: menggerakkan,    Català: mobilitzar,    Deutsch: mobilisieren,    Ελληνικά: κινητοποιώ,    English: mobilize,    Español: movilización,    Euskera: mobilizatu,    Ewe: se koriya,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagbibigay-buhay, pakilusin,    Français: mobilisez,    Galego: mobilizar,    Italiano: mobilitare,    Malay: memobilisasi,    Português: mobilizar,    Română: a mobiliza,    Somali: wacyigelinta,    Srpski: mobilizovanje,    Tiên Việt: vận động,    Türkçe: harekete geçirmek,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 动员



A mobilizer is a person who mobilizes, ie. gets things moving. Social animator. Community development officer or assistant.

Community worker. Activist. Community participation promoter. See: To Be a Mobilizer.

বাংলা : সংগঠক,    Bahasa Indonesia: penggerak,    Català: activista,    Deutsch: mobilisieren, activist,    Ελληνικά: κινητοποιητής, ακτιβιστής, ζωοδότης,    English: animator, mobilizer, activist,    Español: activista,    Euskera: mobilizatzailea,    Ewe: oluse koriya,    Filipino/Tagalog: pakilusin,    Français: mobilisateur,    Galego: activista,     Italiano: mobilizer, animatore, attivista,    日本語: 訓練士または助成人,    Kiswahili: ramsisha,    Malay: pemobilisasi,    Português: ativista,    Română: mobilizator,    Srpski: mobilizer,    Tiên Việt: người vận động,    Türkçe: harekete geçirici,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 积极份子, 动员工作者



Money and wealth are not the same. Money is a cultural symbol that everyone must believe in if it is to be useful.

It can be used as a measure of wealth, a method of transferring or exchanging wealth, and a way to store wealth. (See "wealth," and Principles of Wealth).

Money is not wealth.

বাংলা : টাকা,    Bahasa Indonesia: uang,    Català: diners,    Deutsch: geld,    Ελληνικά: χρήμα,    English: money,    Español: dinero,    Euskera: dirua,    Ewe: owo,    Filipino/Tagalog: pera,    Français: argent,    Galego: diñeiro,    Italiano: denaro,    日本語: 金銭,    Malay: wang,    Português: dinheiro,    Română: bani,    Somali: lacag,    Srpski: pare,    Tiên Việt: tiền bạc,    Türkçe: para,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 金钱



Monitoring is the regular observation, recording, analysing and reporting of activities and the results of those activities, in a project or similar activity. (See Monitoring).

 العربيّة: الرصد,    Bahasa Indonesia: pengawasan,    Català: supervisió,    Deutsch: monitoring,    Ελληνικά: Παρακολούθηση,    English: monitoring,    Español: supervisar,    Ewe: dzikpurkpor,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagsubaybay,    Français: surveillance,    Galego: supervisión,    Italiano: monitoraggio,    日本語: 監視,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 모니터링,    Malay: memantau,    Nederlands: monitoren,    Português: monitoragem,    Română: monitorizarea,    Pyccкий: Индикаторы мониторинга,    Srpski: nadgledanje,    Tiên Việt: giám sát,    Türkçe: gözlemleme,    ردو: نگرانی,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 监察



Qualitative and quantitative criteria (signs) for measuring or assessing the achievements, or degrees of achievement of project activities, objectives and outputs.

They should be objectively verifiable.

See Measuring Strength for indicators of the desired results of community mobilizing, ie empowerment.

 العربيّة: مؤشرات الرصد,    Català: indicadors per a la supervisió,    Deutsch: indikatoren für das monitoring,    Ελληνικά: Δείκτες Παρακολούθησης,    English: monitoring indicators,    Español: indicadores para la supervisión,    ارس: شاخص ها, ی مراقبت,    Filipino/Tagalog: panukat na ginagamit sa pagsusubaybay,    Français: indicateurs de surveillance,    Galego: indicadores da supervisión,    Italiano: indicatori di monitoraggio,    日本語: 監視の評価基準,    Português: indicadores de monitorar,    Română: indicatori de monitorizare,    Pyccкий: индикаторы мониторинга,    Srpski: nadležni znaci,    Türkçe: izleme göstergeleri,    ردو: مانيٹرنگ کے مقياس,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 监察指标



The word "motivation" indicates the willingness to work, or to get something done. The meaning has been corrupted when someone says she or he wants to be “motivated,” meaning that he or she wants payment. Cash is only one possible factor of motivation.

People can be motivated to do things on the basis of loyalty, or of love of person, family, lineage, tribe or country. Some one may be motivated to do things because they want to see the results (job satisfaction). Motivation is the desire to act, not the payment.

 Català: motivar,    Deutsch: motivieren,    Ελληνικά: κινητρο,    English: motivate,    Español: motivar,    Français: motivez,    Italiano: motivazione,    Português: motivar,    Română: motivare,    Srpski: motivatisati,    Türkçe: motive etmek,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 激发动机



Between more than two parties.

This is used where a donor country sends funds to multilateral organization such as the World Bank and the United Nations, which in turn administer aid donations to several recipient countries.

Canada's aid agency, CIDA, has a division called "Multilateral" which administers the donation of aid money to multilateral agencies, mainly the UN. Like the bilateral agencies, the multilateral agencies usually operate through local private enterprises as consultancies, to implement their projects. Compare with " Bilateral."

Multilateral agencies include those that are multi nation, including the United Nations and its many emergency response and developmental agencies (UNDP, Unicef, UNHCR, UNCHS, WHO, FAO, WFP). Multilateral also includes the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

 Català: multilateral,    Deutsch: multilateral,    Ελληνικά: πολυμερησ,    English: multilateral,    Italiano: multilaterale,    Română: multilateral,    Srpski: mnogostran,    Türkçe: çok taraflı,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 多方的



Economists tell of the "multiplier effect."  Where new wealth is invested, the positive effect on the economy is more than the amount created.

As the new money is spent, those who receive it usualy spend most of it, and save part of it. Let us say they spent eighty per cent and saved twenty per cent. Then there is eighty units of new money in the economy, and the recievers spend eighty per cent of that and save twenty per cent. That continues until the amount injected into the economy may be as much as four to eight times the original investment.

 Català: efecte multiplicador,    Ελληνικά: πολλαπλασιαστικο αποτελεσμα,    English: multiplier effect,    Español: efecto,    Português: efeito multiplicador,    Italiano: effetto multiplo,    Română: efect de multiplicare,    Srpski: efekat množenja,    Türkçe: çarpan etkisi,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 乘数效应



How do you raise mushrooms? You "keep them in the dark and feed them cow manure."

This is a slang phrase meaning the opposite of transparency.

Usually a more rude phrase for male bovine faeces (slang for lies) is used instead of "cow manure."

বাংলা : মাশরুম পরিচর্যা,    Bahasa Indonesia: pengobatan jamur,    Català: conreu de bolets,    Deutsch: pilzaufzucht,    Ελληνικά: συμπεριφορά μανιταριών,    English: mushroom treatment,    Español: setas, cultivo de setas,    Euskera: onddoaren tratamendua,    Ewe: hihu iwa bi olu,    Filipino/Tagalog: tratong kabuti,    Français: champignon, traitement de champignon,    Galego: o cultivo do champiñón,    Italiano: oscurità,    日本語: マッシュルーム扱い,    Malay: pengendalian cendawan,    Português: tratamento de cogumelo,  Română: "cultivarea" ciupercilor,    Srpski: pečurski tretman,    Tiên Việt: cách đối xử với nấm    Türkçe: mantar muamelesi,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 蘑菇式处理

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